Acne is common and usually treatable. You may need to take treatment for several months to clear spots. This leaflet describes the treatment of acne with antibiotic tablets.
Antibiotics and how they work in acne
Antibiotics work by killing germs (bacteria) that contribute to the cause of acne. They also have a direct effect of reducing inflammation. Antibiotics usually work well to clear inflamed acne spots and any surrounding skin inflammation.
However, they have little effect on unplugging blocked pores - which you can see as blackheads and whiteheads (comedones). So, if you only have mild acne with just blackheads and whiteheads, you are better off using a rub-on (topical) treatment that unblocks holes in the skin (pores). If you have a lot of blackheads and whiteheads as well as inflamed acne spots, you may be advised to use a topical treatment such as benzoyl peroxide in addition to taking an antibiotic tablet.
Always read the leaflet that is in the packet of antibiotics. Things such as precautions and possible side-effects vary between antibiotics. The following are some general points.
- Children aged under 12 years should not take tetracycline-based antibiotics.
- Do not take tetracycline-based antibiotics if you are pregnant, breast-feeding or intend to become pregnant. Discuss contraception with your doctor if necessary.
- Food and milk affect the absorption of oxytetracycline or tetracycline. Therefore, take these tablets on an empty stomach, between meals, with a glass of water (not milk). Doxycycline and lymecycline can be taken with food.
How long is treatment needed?
Whatever treatment is used, it is normal to take up to four weeks for there to be any improvement that you can see. There is often a good response to treatment by six weeks. However, it can take up to four months (sometimes longer) for maximum response to a treatment and for the skin to be generally free of spots. Note: the most common reason for a treatment failure is because some people think that treatment is not working after a couple of weeks or so and give up.
Therefore, continue with any treatment for at least six weeks before deciding if it is working or not. If there is no improvement after six weeks of regular treatment, do not despair. Adding in another treatment or a change to a different or more powerful treatment will usually be advised and is likely to work. Although treatment can usually clear most spots, there is no treatment that will make your skin perfect and the odd spot may remain.
Will acne return after treatment?
Once the spots have cleared, acne commonly flares up again if you stop treatment. Therefore, after the spots have gone (or are much reduced), it is common to carry on with a maintenance treatment to prevent acne from flaring up again. It is common to need maintenance treatment for 4-5 years to keep acne away. This is typically until the late teens or early 20s. In a small number of cases, acne persists into the 30s, or even later. For these people it is possible to continue to treat the skin to keep it under control.
Maintenance treatment is usually with a rub-on (topical) preparation - either benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid. These can both be used indefinitely. The dose used to prevent spots from returning is often lower than that used to treat acne. For example, one application to the skin every other day with a low-strength preparation may be sufficient to keep spots from returning.
It is not usual to use antibiotic tablets as maintenance treatment once the spots have cleared. This is because long-term use of antibiotics can lead to resistance of germs (bacteria) to the antibiotics. Therefore, if at first you are treated with an antibiotic you may be advised to switch to benzoyl peroxide or a topical retinoid for maintenance treatment.
How to use the Yellow Card Scheme
If you think you have had a side-effect to one of your medicines, you can report this on the Yellow Card Scheme. You can do this online at the following web address: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
The Yellow Card Scheme is used to make pharmacists, doctors and nurses aware of any new side-effects that your medicines or any other healthcare products may have caused. If you wish to report a side-effect, you will need to provide basic information about:
- The side-effect.
- The name of the medicine which you think caused it.
- The person who had the side-effect.
- Your contact details as the reporter of the side-effect.
It is helpful if you have your medication and/or the leaflet that came with it with you while you fill out the report.
Dr Tim Kenny
Dr Laurence Knott
Dr Hannah Gronow