Many breathing (respiratory) difficulties are caused by infections but there are other causes too. The main causes of breathing difficulties include:
- Viral infections.
- Bacterial infections.
- Passive smoking (exposure to cigarette smoke).
- Exposure to other harmful gases (for example, really bad pollution).
- Blockage of the airway by an inhaled object, such as food or any small object.
- A genetic condition such as cystic fibrosis.
When should you get medical advice and treatment?
Many children's coughs and breathing (respiratory) problems get better after about 10 days, sometimes much sooner. You should take your child to the doctor if they:
- Seem to be getting much more unwell.
- Have any symptom that won't go away.
- Have problems feeding and drinking.
- Have signs of becoming very dry (dehydrated) such as a very dry tongue.
- Are coughing up mucus that is dark brown or bloody.
- Are becoming more breathless.
- Already have a diagnosed lung condition such as asthma.
- Have any condition that reduces their defence against infection (weak immune system).
Babies and young children can become very unwell very quickly so it is even more important to keep a close eye on them and get medical advice if you have any concerns.
Further reading and references
Feverish illness in children - Assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years; NICE Guideline (Updated August 2017)
British Guideline on the management of asthma; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network - SIGN (2016)
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