Causes of High Blood Pressure

Authored by Dr Colin Tidy, 21 Sep 2017

Patient is a certified member of
The Information Standard

Reviewed by:
Dr Adrian Bonsall, 21 Sep 2017

In the UK, over one quarter of adults have high blood pressure (hypertension). It becomes more common the older we become.

Blood pressure is the pressure of blood in your blood vessels (arteries), measured in millimetres of mercury (mm Hg). Your blood pressure is recorded as two figures - for example, 150/95 mm Hg. You may hear this said as '150 over 95'.

  • The top (first) number is the systolic pressure. This is the pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts.
  • The bottom (second) number is the diastolic pressure. This is the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between each heartbeat.

Up until the age of 65 years it is more common in men than in women. However, after the age of 65 years it is more common in women. As the population as a whole is living longer, high blood pressure is becoming more common.

High blood pressure is uncommon under the age of 40 years. Between the ages of 45-54 years, about a third of men and a quarter of women have high blood pressure. Over the age of 75 years, about two thirds of men and more than three quarters of women have high blood pressure.

The cause of high blood pressure (hypertension) is not known in most cases

This is called essential hypertension. The pressure in the blood vessels (arteries) depends on how hard the heart pumps and on how much resistance there is in the arteries. It is thought that slight narrowing of the arteries increases the resistance to blood flow, which increases the blood pressure. The cause of the slight narrowing of the arteries is not clear. Various factors probably contribute.

In some cases, high blood pressure is caused by other conditions

It is then called secondary hypertension. For example, certain kidney or hormone problems can cause high blood pressure. In some cases, medication taken for other conditions can cause blood pressure to rise.

Risk factors for high blood pressure

High blood pressure is more common in people:

  • With diabetes. This is the case in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, it is even more common in those with type 2 diabetes.
  • From African-Caribbean origin.
  • From the Indian subcontinent.
  • With a family history of high blood pressure.
  • With certain lifestyle factors. That is, those who:
    • Are overweight.
    • Eat a lot of salt.
    • Don't take enough exercise.
    • Drink a lot of alcohol.
    • Have a lot of stress.

Further reading and references

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