Left Upper Quadrant Pain

Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use, so you may find the language more technical than the condition leaflets.

See also: Abdominal Pain written for patients

Synonyms: left subcostal pain, left hypochondrial pain

Left upper quadrant (LUQ) pain means pain in the left upper abdominal region. There are related separate articles Right Upper Quadrant PainAbdominal Pain, Abdominal Pain in Pregnancy, Abdominal Pain in Children.

History

  • Pain: onset, nature, time course, radiation, exacerbating or relieving factors.
  • Women: establish whether pregnancy is possible. Last menstrual period date - ask whether this period was normal.
  • Related symptoms: dysphagia, vomiting, anorexia, micturition and bowels, bleeding, systemic symptoms, chest symptoms, weight loss.
  • Past medical history, recent injury or surgery, medication (steroids may mask abdominal signs), allergies, last meal.

Examination[1]

  • Note if well or ill, vital signs; chest examination if appropriate.
  • Abdominal examination including spleen size.
  • If aortic aneurysm is suspected, check pulses and blood pressure in both arms.
  • Rectal or pelvic examination: not usually required for initial assessment of LUQ pain; consider if it will aid diagnosis or management.
  • Young children: examine ears, throat and chest also.
  • Bedside tests: urine pregnancy test (consider pregnancy in any woman of childbearing age), urine dipstick, bedside glucose test.

LUQ pain can originate from the chest, abdomen, diaphragm/peritoneum or from general 'medical' causes. Note that intra-abdominal organs may not localise pain accurately and diaphragmatic pain can be referred to the shoulder tip.

The crude differential diagnosis is vast but after adequate history and examination it should be very much smaller. The following order is not intended to indicate likelihood:

Possible causes of LUQ pain include

Thoracic causes

Abdominal causes

  • Blood tests - cross-match if bleeding; FBC, renal and liver function, glucose; consider serum beta-hCG, sickle test, amylase, calcium, hepatitis serology, ESR/CRP.
  • ECG - for cardiac ischaemia or pre-operatively.
  • Urine microscopy and culture; pregnancy test if appropriate.
  • X-rays:
    • CXR (erect chest if there is suspected perforation - look for air under the diaphragm).
    • Plain abdominal X-ray.
    • Erect and supine films for obstruction (may show air-fluid levels).
    • Kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) film for renal colic (although CT KUB may be preferred).

Further investigations[1]

  • Abdominal and pelvic ultrasound are useful for renal, gynaecological or obstetric pathology, masses, organomegaly, ascites, or abscess. Ultrasound may show acute appendicitis.
  • CT or MRI scanning: CT of the abdomen with or without contrast is the most common imaging employed, due to ease of availability. MRI is the preferred option in pregnancy, although CT scanning is increasingly being used in pregnancy in specific cases - eg, it is the most reliable method of diagnosing patients with suspected obstruction of the urinary tract due to calculus. Studies suggest that the risk to the fetus from the ionising radiation involved in CT scanning is minimal. If a risk-benefit analysis confirms that CT would be in the patient's best interests, it should not be withheld.[2]
  • Endoscopy.
  • Diagnostic laparoscopy (followed by laparoscopic surgery, if appropriate).

In the primary care or A&E setting, the diagnosis may not be clear, so use 'management of uncertainty' principles. Aim to decide whether the patient needs admission, surgery or further investigation - and how urgently. General principles are:

  • For serious emergencies, start resuscitation if needed, refer and transfer promptly.
  • Have a low threshold for referring/admitting those where diagnosis may be difficult - eg:
    • Children.
    • The elderly.[4]
    • Those with learning difficulties.
    • Those with relevant pre-existing illness.
  • Pain relief may be needed:
    • Diclofenac (intramuscular or suppositories) is useful for renal colic.
    • For severe pain, intravenous opiate analgesia can be given but titrate small doses and monitor vital signs. Studies in children and adults have demonstrated that administering intravenous opioids to patients with acute abdominal pain induces analgesia but does not delay diagnosis or adversely affect diagnostic accuracy.[5]
  • The clinical picture can change over time: reassess if symptoms persist.
  • Consider referral/admission if a patient re-consults with undiagnosed pain.
  • If discharging the patient, ensure they understand when to seek help.

Did you find this information useful?

Original Author:
Dr Naomi Hartree
Current Version:
Dr Gurvinder Rull
Peer Reviewer:
Dr Adrian Bonsall
Document ID:
2377 (v24)
Last Checked:
24 March 2017
Next Review:
23 March 2022

Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. Patient Platform Limited has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. For details see our conditions.