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    Ross River Virus Infection Professional

    Ross River Virus Infection, Synonym: epidemic polyarthritis Ross River virus (RRV) is an RNA alphavirus. It is an arbovirus transmitted to man by mosquitoes, causing a polyarthrit...

    Schistosomiasis Conditions

    If you travel to, or live in, the following areas you are at risk if you come into contact with contaminated fresh water: Africa: all fresh water in southern and sub-Saharan Africa, including th...

    Disabled Road Users Conditions

    Blue Badge holders are exempt from tolls at certain river crossings, bridges and tunnels. It is an offence to display a Blue Badge if the disabled person has not been in the vehicle prior ...

    Giardia Conditions

    It can also be caught by a person swimming in contaminated water (for example, in lakes or rivers). How common is giardia and who gets it? Giardial infection is a common cause of infe...

    Lymphatic Filariasis Professional

    Nematodes (roundworms) River blindness Lymphatic filariasis Filariasis

    Cutaneous Filariasis Professional

    Geographical distribution of human loiasis is restricted to the rainforest and swamp forest areas of West and Central Africa, especially Cameroon and on the Ogowe River. Presentation ...

    Cryptosporidium Conditions

    Swimming in contaminated water (for example, in lakes or rivers) can also cause infection. Outbreaks have also occurred through swimming pool contamination, as chlorination doesn't always...

    Leptospirosis and Weil's Disease Conditions

    If there is contact with fresh, surface waters (for example, canals, ponds or rivers, or with rats) then you should: Cover any cuts, scratches or sores with a waterproof plaster.

    Systemic Mycoses Professional

    Endemic fungal infections Histoplasmosis [ 3 ] Histoplasmosis is linked to exposure to bird and bat droppings especially along the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys in the USA. It usu...

    Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Conditions

    They join together (like tributaries of a river) to form the larger common bile duct. Bile constantly drips down the tiny bile ducts, into the common bile duct, and into the first part of the...

    Health Advice for Travel Abroad Conditions

    Lakes and rivers Understand your environment. Some lakes and rivers may not be safe for swimming, due to the presence of freshwater parasites which can cause serious infections in h...

    Giardiasis Professional

    UK tap water is very unlikely to be contaminated with Giardia spp. but the same cannot be said for water from rivers and lakes. When camping, water from these sources should be boiled befor...

    Insect Bites and Stings Conditions

    Where midges are common, some people wear these when out - for example, when camping next to lakes and rivers. Many camping shops sell them. There is no evidence that eating garlic, vit...

    Trachoma Professional

    Onchocerciasis , or river blindness, an infection of the skin by filarial larvae that may also affect the conjunctiva of the eye.

    Leptospirosis (Weil's Disease) Professional

    Recreational risk factors include taking part in activities which expose them to natural water, including canals, ponds or rivers, or who have contact with rats. Activities in freshwa...

    African Trypanosomiasis Professional

    The World Health Organization (WHO) says that infection covers a total of 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. [ 4 ] West African sleeping sickness is endemic around waterholes and river a...

    Fungal Lung Infections Professional

    The endemic fungi are distributed in the Americas in the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers (histoplasmosis and blastomycosis), the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico (coc...

    Cryptosporidiosis Professional

    One study found that 39-60% of HIV-seropositive patients infected with cryptosporidiosis had chronic diarrhoea. [ 8 ] Children with acute leukaemia seem also to be at risk from cryptosporidiosis, ...

    Drowning and Near Drowning Professional

    Prevention Measures for the prevention of drowning include educating on water safety, installing barriers between non-intended users and water (eg, pool fencing), mitigating the consequences of sub...

    Salmonella Conditions

    This includes untreated water from rivers, lakes and streams. Drink pasteurised or boiled milk. Where possible, eat eggs which have been laid by hens vaccinated against salmonella, indicat...