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    Coloboma Professional

    It can involve one or more ocular structures, including the cornea, iris, ciliary body, lens, retina, choroid and optic disc.

    Non-diabetic Retinal Vascular Disease Professional

    These increases appear independent of the risks associated with raised blood pressure. [ 2 ] Patients with choroidal changes are at risk of developing retinal vein occlusions described above, part...

    Orbital Swellings Professional

    Further investigation In the Eye Unit, patients can be assessed in more detail with regards to their optic nerve function (eg, formal visual field tests), any proptosis (using a painless instrument c...

    Episcleritis and Scleritis Professional

    It is a severe ocular inflammation, often with ocular complications, which nearly always requires systemic treatment. [ 1 , 2 ] Differentiating episcleritis from scleritis re...

    Primary Open-angle Glaucoma Professional

    This condition is referred to as ocular hypertension. Prior to 1978, glaucoma was defined as IOP above 21 mm Hg in an eye (the normal range is considered to be 10-21 mm Hg with 14 bei...

    Cicatricial Pemphigoid Professional

    The estimated incidence of ocular CP is between 1 in 8,000 and 1 in 46,000. The real frequency of the disease is probably higher because of diagnostic difficulty.

    Red Eye Professional

    History History of presenting complaint Time and speed of onset Ocular symptoms (eg, pain, photophobia, blurred vision, discharge, etc). Systemic symptoms (eg, headaches, ...

    Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma Professional

    Certain infections have been associated with MALT lymphomas: There is H. pylori infection in 85-90% of gastric MALT lymphomas. [ 1 ] Chlamydophila psittaci has been identified as a possib...

    Blurred Vision Professional

    Examples include any of the other visual phenomena described above, pain (distinguish between ocular pain and pain in the head), associated ocular complaints (eg, red eye, discharge,...

    Vitreous Haemorrhage Professional

    It is associated with a retinal tear or break in 70-95% of cases. Ocular trauma . The most common cause in children and young adults: Open globe injury may cause bleeding in ...

    Nasal Polyps Professional

    Rarely, massive polyps (such as those occurring in cystic fibrosis or with allergic fungal sinusitis) can lead to craniofacial structural abnormalities with resulting proptosis, hypertelorism...

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Professional

    These include hypertelorism, hooded eyelids, tubular nose, broad nose tip, small mouth and mild ear abnormalities. [ 8 ] Hearing and speech Hearing is important for language developm...

    Fetal Anticonvulsant Syndrome Professional

    Minor malformations associated with AEDs include: Dysmorphic features (v-shaped eyebrows, low-set ears, broad nasal bridge, irregular teeth). Hypertelorism. Hypoplastic nails and ...

    Eye Injuries Professional

    Mustard gas exposure [ 15 , 16 ] Mustard gas causes chronic and delayed destructive lesions in the ocular surface and cornea, leading to progressive visual deterioration and ocular...

    Strabismus (Squint) Professional

    Rare causes: sarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis, tuberculosis. Ocular myopathies Ocular myositis [ 21 ] This is an idiopathic, nonspecific inflammation of o...

    Optic Disc Swelling (including Papilloedema) Professional

    Examination findings The following are suggestive of papilloedema: Ocular findings : Disc swelling - usually bilateral, sometimes asymmetrical). Venous engorgement (typically...

    Eye Problems in Babies Professional

    Any child with an ocular abnormality should be referred to an ophthalmologist specialising in paediatric patients.

    Examination of the Cranial Nerves Professional

    Oculomotor, abducent and trochlear nerves These three nerves are examined together, as they control the external ocular muscles. The oculomotor nerve supplies the internal muscles of th...

    Herpes Simplex Eye Infections Professional

    Occasionally, the latter can give rise to ocular infection either venereally or at birth (ophthalmia neonatorum) during a vaginal delivery.

    Toxoplasmosis Professional

    Cases of severe, acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients, due to atypical strains mainly from the Amazonian rainforest, have been reported [ 10 ] . Ocular toxoplasm...