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    Fetal Anticonvulsant Syndrome Professional

    Minor malformations associated with AEDs include: Dysmorphic features (v-shaped eyebrows, low-set ears, broad nasal bridge, irregular teeth). Hypertelorism. Hypoplastic nails and ...

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Professional

    These include hypertelorism, hooded eyelids, tubular nose, broad nose tip, small mouth and mild ear abnormalities. [ 8 ] Hearing and speech Hearing is important for language developm...

    Nasal Polyps Professional

    Rarely, massive polyps (such as those occurring in cystic fibrosis or with allergic fungal sinusitis) can lead to craniofacial structural abnormalities with resulting proptosis, hypertelorism...

    Strabismus (Squint) Professional

    Rare causes: sarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis, tuberculosis. Ocular myopathies Ocular myositis [ 21 ] This is an idiopathic, nonspecific inflammation of o...

    Optic Disc Swelling (including Papilloedema) Professional

    Examination findings The following are suggestive of papilloedema: Ocular findings : Disc swelling - usually bilateral, sometimes asymmetrical). Venous engorgement (typically...

    Angle-closure Glaucoma Professional

    Symptoms of acute ACG (AACG) include severe ocular pain with decreased acuity - immediate treatment is needed to prevent permanent visual loss. [ 1 , 2 ] ACG is a major cause of severe s...

    Eye Problems in Babies Professional

    Any child with an ocular abnormality should be referred to an ophthalmologist specialising in paediatric patients.

    Herpes Simplex Eye Infections Professional

    Occasionally, the latter can give rise to ocular infection either venereally or at birth (ophthalmia neonatorum) during a vaginal delivery.

    Toxoplasmosis Professional

    Cases of severe, acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients, due to atypical strains mainly from the Amazonian rainforest, have been reported [ 10 ] . Ocular toxoplasm...

    Thyroid Eye Disease Professional

    Initially, they relate to an increasingly 'crowded' orbit: Ocular irritation. Ache (worse in the mornings) behind the eye, especially when looking up, down or sideways.

    Examination of the Cranial Nerves Professional

    Oculomotor, abducent and trochlear nerves These three nerves are examined together, as they control the external ocular muscles. The oculomotor nerve supplies the internal muscles of th...

    Acute Pituitary Failure Professional

    Compression of the cavernous sinus may impair cranial nerves III, IV and VI, causing ocular paresis and hence diplopia (in the conscious patient). Horner's syndrome, which may develop ...

    Heerfordt's Syndrome Professional

    Complications Ocular sarcoidosis Ocular sicca syndrome. Band keratopathy. Cataracts . Glaucoma .

    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Professional

    Topical steroids may be useful when used early in ocular disease. [ 17 ] Early ophthalmological advice is essential to reduce the risk of ophthalmological sequelae.

    Retinitis Pigmentosa Professional

    Associated ocular problems may include: Myopia (frequently) Subcapsular cataract Open-angle glaucoma (3% of patients) Keratoconus Vitreous changes (most commonly a posterior...

    Posterior Vitreous Detachment Professional

    In cases of ocular or head trauma, a 'traumatic PVD' may occur. Nature of the vitreous The vitreous makes up about 80% of ocular volume.

    Blepharospasm Professional

    There are cases of secondary blepharospasm due to identifiable organic disease. Ocular causes include: Eye trauma (mechanical, chemical or thermal) - particularly to the cornea - will c...

    Behçet's Disease Professional

    It is presumed to be an autoimmune disease and includes involvement of the mucocutaneous, ocular, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, vascular, musculoskeletal, urological and...

    Corneal Foreign Bodies, Injuries and Abrasions Professional

    Chemical burns [ 11 ] Acid and alkali burns represent potentially blinding ocular injuries and are an ocular emergency requiring immediate treatment and specialist referral (in t...

    Shingles and Shingles Vaccination Professional

    Lid complications include ptosis, trichiasis, scarring of the skin and madarosis (loss of lashes). Rare ocular complications include optic neuritis, retinitis and ocular crania...