This travel page is provided by Fitfortravel, a public website by NHS Scotland which gives travel health information for people travelling abroad from the UK.
Advice for All Destinations
The risks to health whilst travelling will vary between individuals and many issues need to be taken into account, e.g. activities abroad, length of stay and general health of the traveller. It is recommended that you consult with your General Practitioner or Practice Nurse 6-8 weeks in advance of travel. They will assess your particular health risks before recommending vaccines and /or antimalarial tablets. This is also a good opportunity to discuss important travel health issues including safe food and water, accidents, sun exposure and insect bites. Many of the problems experienced by travellers cannot be prevented by vaccinations and other preventive measures need to be taken.
Measles occurs worldwide and is common in developing countries. The pre-travel consultation is a good opportunity to check that you are immune, either by previous immunisation or natural measles infection.
Ensure you are fully insured for medical emergencies including repatriation. UK travellers visiting other European Union countries should also carry the European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) as it entitles travellers to reduced cost, sometimes free, medical treatment in most European countries. Online applications normally arrive within seven days. Applications may also be made by telephone on 0300 330 1350 or by post using the form which can be downloaded from the website.
For Travel Safety Advice you should visit the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office website.
A worldwide list of clinics, run by members of the International Society of Travel Medicine is available on the ISTM website.
- Confirm primary courses and boosters are up to date as recommended for life in Britain - including for example, vaccines required for occupational risk of exposure, lifestyle risks and underlying medical conditions.
- Courses or boosters usually advised: Hepatitis A; Tetanus; Typhoid
- Other vaccines to consider: Rabies
- No yellow fever vaccination certificate required for this country.
Notes on the diseases mentioned above
- Hepatitis A: Spread through consuming contaminated food and water or person to person through the faecal-oral route. Risk is higher where personal hygiene and sanitation are poor.
- Rabies: Spread through the saliva of an infected animal, usually through a bite, scratch or lick on broken skin. Particularly dogs and related species, but also bats. Risk is higher for those going to remote areas (who may not be able to promptly access appropriate treatment in the event of a bite), long stays, those at higher risk of contact with animals and bats, and children. Even when pre-exposure vaccine has been received, urgent medical advice should be sought after any animal or bat bite.
- Tetanus: Spread through contamination of cuts, burns and wounds with tetanus spores. Spores are found in soil worldwide. A total of 5 doses of tetanus vaccine are recommended for life in the UK. Boosters are usually recommended in a country or situation where the correct treatment of an injury may not be readily available.
- Typhoid: Spread mainly through consumption of contaminated food and drink. Risk is higher where access to adequate sanitation and safe water is limited.
Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease transmitted by mosquitoes. You cannot be vaccinated against malaria.
Malaria precautionsMalaria Map
- Malaria risk is present throughout the year, in a number of municipalities mainly in the municipality of Atlantico Norte.
- Malaria precautions are essential. Avoid mosquito bites by covering up with clothing such as long sleeves and long trousers especially after sunset, using insect repellents on exposed skin and, when necessary, sleeping under a mosquito net.
- Check with your doctor or nurse about suitable antimalarial tablets.
- See malaria map – additional information can be found by clicking on the Regional Information icon below the map.
- Low risk areas with additional advice: antimalarial tablets are not usually recommended, however, they can be considered for certain travellers who may be at higer risk e.g. longer stays in rural areas, visiting friends or relatives, thos with medical conditions, immunosuppression or those without a spleen. Chloroquine OR proguanil is advised for those at risk.
- Low to no risk areas: antimalarials are not usually recommended.
- If you have been travelling in a malarious area and develop a fever seek medical attention promptly. Remember malaria can develop even up to one year after exposure.
- If travelling to high risk malarious areas, remote from medical facilities, carrying emergency malaria standby treatment may be considered.
Other Health Risks
A viral illness that is transmitted to humans by mosquito bites. The mosquito that spreads dengue bites during the day and is more common in urban areas. Symptoms include fever, headache, severe joint, bone and muscular pain - hence its other name 'breakbone fever'. There is no vaccine and prevention is through avoidance of mosquito bites. For further information see Dengue Fever.
This country has reported cases of ZIKV virus infection. ZIKV is most commonly spread by mosquito bites, but there is also a risk of sexual transmission. There is a link between ZIKV infection and babies being born with birth defects.
Advice for Travellers:
- All travellers should practice strict mosquito bite avoidance, at all times.
- Do not travel without adequate travel insurance.
- Seek pre-travel advice from your health care provider 6-8 weeks in advance of travel, particularly important if you are pregnant or planning pregnancy.
- Pregnant women are advised to postpone non-essential travel to countries or areas with High risk of ZIKV transmission.
- Pregnant women are advised to consider postponing non-essential travel to countries or areas with Moderate risk of ZIKV transmission.
- If you develop any feverish illness whilst travelling or on return medical attention must be sought quickly.
Look at the additional advice on the ZIKV Infection page, which includes how to avoid sexual transmission of ZIKV.
- 20/12/2016 - Changes to Pakistan and Nicaragua Malaria Map and Advice
- 30/09/2016 - Zika Virus Infection (Update)
- 22/06/2016 - Zika Virus Advice for Travellers
- 28/01/2016 - Zika Virus in Nicaragua
- 28/04/2015 - Chikungunya in the Caribbean/Americas
- 30/03/2015 - Chikungunya in the Caribbean/Americas (Update)
- 02/03/2015 - Chikungunya in the Caribbean/Americas (Update)
- 09/02/2015 - Chikungunya in the Caribbean/Americas (Update)
- 09/01/2015 - Chikungunya in the Caribbean/Americas (Update)
- 02/12/2014 - Chikungunya virus infection in Caribbean islands and the Americas (Update)