Take sitagliptin tablets once a day.
Remember to follow any advice you have been given about your diet.
The most common side-effects are feeling sick (nausea), headache, and nose or throat infections.
|Type of medicine||An antidiabetic medicine|
|Used for||Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus|
|Also called||Januvia®; Janumet® (a combination tablet containing sitagliptin with metformin)|
Insulin is a hormone which is made naturally in your body, in the pancreas. It helps to control the levels of sugar in your blood. If your body does not make enough insulin, or if it does not use the insulin it makes effectively, this results in the condition called diabetes (diabetes mellitus).
People with diabetes need treatment to control the amount of sugar (glucose) in their blood. This is because good control of blood glucose levels reduces the risk of complications later on. Some people can control the sugar in their blood by making changes to the food they eat but, for other people, medicines like sitagliptin are given alongside the changes in diet.
Sitagliptin works in part by increasing the amount of insulin produced by your body. It also reduces the amount of a substance called glucagon being produced by your pancreas. Glucagon causes your liver to produce more sugar, so by reducing the amount of glucagon in your body, this also helps to reduce the levels of glucose in your blood.
Before taking sitagliptin
Some medicines are not suitable for people with certain conditions, and sometimes a medicine may only be used if extra care is taken. For these reasons, before you start taking sitagliptin it is important that your doctor knows:
- If you are pregnant, trying for a baby or breastfeeding.
- If you have any problems with the way your kidneys work.
- If you are taking any other medicines. This includes any medicines you are taking which are available to buy without a prescription, as well as herbal and complementary medicines.
- If you have ever had an allergic reaction to a medicine.
How to take sitagliptin
- Before you start the treatment, read the manufacturer's printed information leaflet from inside the pack. It will give you more information about sitagliptin tablets and will provide you with a full list of the side-effects which you may experience from taking them.
- Take sitagliptin tablets exactly as your doctor tells you to. The usual dose is one 100 mg tablet a day. (You may be prescribed a lower strength of tablet if you have a problem with the way your kidneys work.) You can generally take the tablet at a time of day to suit you, but it is best to take your doses at the same time of day each day. You can take sitagliptin before or after a meal.
- If you have been prescribed a combination tablet of sitagliptin with metformin (brand Janumet®) you should take one tablet twice a day, after meals.
- If you forget to take a dose, take it as soon as you remember (unless it is nearly time for your next dose, in which case leave out the missed dose). Do not take two doses together to make up for a forgotten dose.
Getting the most from your treatment
- It is important that you keep your regular doctor's and clinic appointments. This is so your progress can be monitored. You will need regular check-ups with an eye clinic and a foot clinic as well as with your doctor and diabetes clinic.
- Your doctor may recommend that you test for sugar in your blood or urine regularly to check that your diabetes is being controlled. Your doctor or diabetes nurse will show you how to do this.
- Do not drink alcohol, as it can affect the control of your blood sugar. Ask your doctor if you need further advice about this.
- If you are a driver you should take special care, as your ability to concentrate may be affected if your diabetes is not well controlled. You may be advised to check your blood sugar levels before you travel and to have a snack with you on long journeys.
- If you have been given advice by your doctor about changes to your diet, stopping smoking or taking regular exercise, it is important for you to follow the advice you have been given.
- Check with your doctor before taking up any new physical exercise, as this will have an effect on your blood sugar levels and you may need to check your blood or urine levels more regularly.
- Make sure you know what it feels like if your blood sugar is low. This is known as hypoglycaemia, or a 'hypo'. Although sitagliptin is unlikely to cause low blood sugar, other medicines that you are taking for diabetes alongside it may. The first signs of hypoglycaemia are feeling shaky or anxious, sweating, looking pale, feeling hungry, having a feeling that your heart is pounding (palpitations), and feeling dizzy.
- If you are due to have an operation or dental treatment, you should tell the person carrying out the treatment that you have diabetes and that you are taking sitagliptin.
- If you get unusually thirsty, pass urine more frequently, and feel very tired, you should let your doctor know. These are signs that there is too much sugar in your blood and your treatment may need adjusting.
- Treatment for diabetes is usually lifelong. Continue to take sitagliptin tablets unless you are advised otherwise by your doctor.
Can sitagliptin cause problems?
Along with their useful effects, most medicines can cause unwanted side-effects although not everyone experiences them. The table below contains some of the most common ones associated with sitagliptin. You will find a full list in the manufacturer's information leaflet supplied with your medicine. The unwanted effects often improve as your body adjusts to the new medicine, but speak with your doctor or pharmacist if any of the following continue or become troublesome.
|Common sitagliptin side-effects (these affect fewer than 1 in 10 people)||What can I do if I experience this?|
|Headache and other aches or pains||Drink plenty of water and ask your pharmacist to recommend a suitable painkiller. If the pains continue, let your doctor know|
|Feeling sick (nausea), wind (flatulence)||Stick to simple foods - avoid rich or spicy meals|
|Nose and throat infections, swollen feet or ankles||Speak with your doctor if troublesome|
Important: sitagliptin has caused persistent and severe tummy (abdominal) pain in a few people. If this happens to you, you should speak with your doctor as soon as possible as it can be a symptom of an inflamed pancreas (pancreatitis).
If you experience any other symptoms which you think may be due to the tablets, speak with your doctor or pharmacist for further advice.
How to store sitagliptin
- Keep all medicines out of the reach and sight of children.
- Store in a cool, dry place, away from direct heat and light.
Important information about all medicines
If you buy any medicines, always check with a pharmacist that they are safe to take with your other medicines.
Never take more than the prescribed dose. If you suspect that you or someone else might have taken an overdose of this medicine, go to the accident and emergency department of your local hospital. Take the container with you, even if it is empty.
This medicine is for you. Never give it to other people even if their condition appears to be the same as yours.
Do not keep out-of-date or unwanted medicines. Take them to your local pharmacy which will dispose of them for you.
If you have any questions about this medicine ask your pharmacist.
Further reading and references
Manufacturer's PIL, Januvia® 100 mg film-coated tablets; Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited, The electronic Medicines Compendium. Dated May 2020.
British National Formulary, 79th Edition (Mar 2020); British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, London.