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This article is for Medical Professionals

Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find one of our health articles more useful.

Read COVID-19 guidance from NICE

Treatment of almost all medical conditions has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. NICE has issued rapid update guidelines in relation to many of these. This guidance is changing frequently. Please visit to see if there is temporary guidance issued by NICE in relation to the management of this condition, which may vary from the information given below.

We use a number of abbreviations in our medical reference articles. The following table provides each abbreviation in full.

% abvpercentage alcohol by volume
acante cibum (before food)
AIIRAangiotensin-II receptor antagonist
AAFBacid-alcohol fast bacilli
AASatomic absorbance spectrophotometry
ABGarterial blood gasses
ABPIankle brachial pressure index
ABRauditory brainstem response
ACBSAdvisory Committee on Borderline Substances
ACDPAdvisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
ACEangiotensin-converting enzyme
ACEIangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
ACRalbumin:creatinine ratio
ACTartemisinin-based combination therapy
ACTHadrenocorticotrophic hormone
ADHantidiuretic hormone
AECGambulatory electrocardiography
AEDautomated external defibrillators
AFatrial fibrillation
AFEamniotic fluid embolism
AGXTalanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase
AIDSacquired immune deficiency syndrome
AIOAmbulance Incident Officer
AJankle jerk
ALFacute liver failure
ALSamyotrophic lateral sclerosis
AMAsanti-mitochondrial antibodies
AMHanti-Müllerian hormone
AMHPApproved Mental Health Professional
ANAantinuclear antibody
ANCAantineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
Anti-GBMantiglomerular basement membrane antibody
anti-RNPantibodies to ribonucleoprotein
a-NVHasymptomatic non-visible haematuria
aPPTactivated partial thromboplastin time
APTadaptive pacing therapy
APUDamine precursor uptake and decarboxylation
ARankle reflex
ARBangiotensin receptor blocker
ARCAIDS-related complex
ARDSacute/adult respiratory distress syndrome
ARRabsolute risk reduction
ARTassisted reproduction technique
ARVCarrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
ASDautistic spectrum disorder
ASWapproved social worker
ASTRALAngioplasty and Stent for Renal Artery Lesions
ATCaround the clock
ATRAall-trans retinoic acid
AVJRTatrioventricular junctional re-entry tachycardia
AVNRTatrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia
AVNTatrioventricular nodal tachycardia
AZOORacute zonal occult outer retinopathy
BAERbrainstem auditory evoked response
BALbronchoalveolar lavage
BALTbronchus-associated lymphoid tissue
BANBritish Approved Name
BCBVBetter Care Better Value
BCGBacille Calmette-Guérin
BChBachelor of Surgery
bdbis di twice daily
BDDbody dysmorphic disorder
BHRbronchial hyperresponsiveness
BiPAPbilevel positive airway pressure
BJbiceps jerk
BMBachelor of Medicine
BMABritish Medical Association
BMDbone mineral density
BMIBody Mass Index
BMJBritish Medical Journal
BMedSciBachelor of Medical Sciences
BMMbehavioural migraine management
BMSbare metal stent
BMTbone marrow transplantation
BMZbasement membrane zone
BNFBritish National Formulary
BNPbrain natriuretic peptide
BPblood pressure
BPharmBachelor of Pharmacy
bpmbeats per minute
BPPbiophysical profile
BRbiceps reflex
BRAbilateral renal agenesis
BRIbuilding-related illness
BSAPbone-specific alkaline phosphatase
BSEbovine spongiform encephalopathy
BS MBBachelor of Surgery and Bachelor of Medicine
BSObilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
C1-INHC1-inhibitor antigenic protein
CAcarbohydrate antigen
CABGcoronary artery bypass graft
CADcomputer-aided detection
CA-MRSAcommunity-acquired MRSA
cANCAclassical antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
CAPDcontinuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
CAPScatastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome
CaSRcalcium-sensitive receptor
CATcognitive analytic therapy
cccum cibo (with food)
CCDCconsultant in communicable disease control
CCFcongestive cardiac failure
CCGRcomplete cytogenetic remission
CCPcyclic citrullinated peptide
CCPDcontinuous cycler-assisted peritoneal dialysis
CCUcoronary care unit
CDIChildren's Depression Inventory
CDIcranial diabetes insipidus
CEAcarcinoembryonic antigen
CERcontrol event rate
CESCenter for Epidemiologic Studies
CEScauda equina syndrome
CES-DCenter for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
CFcomplement fixation
CfICentre for Infections
cfucolony-forming unit
CFSchronic fatigue syndrome
CFTRcystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
CHAOScongenital high upper airway obstruction syndrome
CHARTcontinuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy
CHBcomplete heart block
CHCCommunity Health Council
CHDcoronary heart disease
CHMCommission on Human Medicines
CHMPCommittee for Medicinal Products for Human Use
CIconfidence interval
CIRCIcritical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency
CIScarcinoma in situ
CMACECentre for Maternal and Child Enquiries
CNScentral nervous system
CNVchoroidal neovascularisation
COADchronic obstructive airways disease
COCPcombined oral contraceptive pill
COPDchronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COSHHCommittee on Substances Hazardous to Health
COTConsultation Observation Tool
CMPcasual male partner
CPAPcontinuous positive airway pressure
CPDcontinuing professional development
CQCCare Quality Commission
CRPC-reactive protein
CRTcardiac resynchronisation therapy
CSDDCornell Scale for Depression in Dementia
CSEcombined spinal-epidural
CSIIcontinuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
CSSDcentral sterile supply department
CSSRscouncils with social services responsibilities
CTcomputed tomography
CTPAcomputed tomography pulmonary angiogram
CTRcardiothoracic ratio
CTSIcomputed tomography severity index
CUPcarcinoma of unknown primary
CVE/CVAcerebrovascular event/cerebrovascular accident
CVPcentral venous pressure
CVSchorionic villus biopsy
CXRchest X-ray
DADiploma in Anaesthetics
DABAdual action bone agent
DATdirect antiglobulin test
db HLdecibels hearing loss
DCDdevelopmental co-ordination disorder
DChDoctor of Surgery
DCHDiploma in Child Health
DCISductal carcinoma in situ
DCPDiploma in Clinical Pathology
dcSSCdiffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis
DDHdevelopmental dysplasia of the hip
DDSDoctor of Dental Surgery
DENDoctor's Educational Need
DESdrug-eluting stent
DEXAdual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
DFAdirect fluorescent antibody
DFHomDiploma of the Faculty of Homeopathy
DFMDiploma in Forensic Medicine
DFSAdrug-facilitated sexual assault
dGEMRICgadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage
DGMDiploma in Geriatric Medicine
DGODiploma in Gynaecology and Obstetrics
DICdisseminated intravascular coagulation
DIFdirect immunofluorescence
DIPdistal interphalangeal
Dip GU MedDiploma in Genitourinary Medicine
DLBCLdiffuse large B-cell lymphoma
DLCOdiffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide
DMdiabetes mellitus
DMARDdisease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug
DMRDiploma in Medical Radiology
DMSAdimercaptosuccinic acid
DODiploma in Ophthalmology
DObstDiploma in Obstetrics
DOTdirectly observed therapy
DPathDiploma in Pathology
DPFDental Practitioners' Formulary
DPHDiploma in Public Health
DPhilDoctor of Philosophy
DPhysMedDiploma in Physical Medicine
DPMDiploma in Psychological Medicine
DQdevelopmental quotient
DRDiploma in Radiology
DRCOGDiploma Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
DRCPathDiploma Royal College of Pathologists
DRESSDrug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms
DREZdorsal root entry zone
DSDoctor of Surgery
DSPdigital signal processing
DTsdelirium tremens
DTaPdiphtheria (D), tetanus (T) and acellular pertussis (aP)
DTBDrug and Therapeutics Bulletin
DXRdigital X-ray radiogrammetry
EBLestimated blood loss
EBMevidence-based medicine
EBNAEBV nuclear antigen
EBUS TBNAendobronchial US-guided transbronchial needle aspiration
ECMOextracorporeal membrane oxygenation
ECTelectroconvulsive therapy
ECVexternal cephalic version
EDCestimated date of confinement
EDDexpected date of delivery
EDSexcessive daytime sleepiness
EERexperimental event rate
EFWCelectrolyte-free water clearance
eGFRestimated glomerular filtration rate
EIAenzyme immunoassay
ELISAenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMAendomysial antibodies
EMDAelectromotive drug administration
eodevery other day
ePACTelectronic Prescribing Analysis and Cost Tool
EPDSEdinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
ePFIPelectronic Prescribing and Financial Information for Practices
EPSEsextra-pyramidal side-effects
ER(o)estrogen receptor
ERCPendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
ERPexposure and relapse prevention
ERTenzyme replacement therapy
ESBLextended-spectrum beta-lactamase
ESESelectrical status epilepticus in sleep
ESRerythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESWLextracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
EUAexamination under anaesthesia
EUSendoscopic ultrasonography
EVARendovascular aneurysm/aortic repair
FAPfamilial adenomatous polyposis
FAMMfamilial atypical mole and melanoma
FASTF ace A rm S peech T est
FBCfull blood count
FDG-PETfluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
FEIAfluorescent enzyme immunoassay
FENafractional excretion of sodium
FEUreafractional excretion of urea
FEV1forced expiratory volume in one second
FFAFellow Faculty of Anaesthetists
FFCMFellow Faculty of Community Medicine
FFDMfull-field digital mammography
FFFPFellow of the Faculty of Family Planning
FFHomFellow of the Faculty of Homeopathy
FFPathFellow Faculty of Pathology
FFPHMFellow Faculty of Public Health Medicine
FFRFellow Faculty of Radiologists
FISHdual fluorescence in situ hybridisation
FLA-ABSfluorescent antibody absorption test
fl ozfluid ounce
FMRPfragile X mental retardation protein
FNAfine-needle aspiration
FNACfine-needle aspiration cytology
FPRfalse positive rate
FRCAFellow Royal College of Anaesthetists
FRCGPFellow Royal College of General Practitioners
FRCOGFellow Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
FRCOphthFellow Royal College of Ophthalmology
FRCPathFellow Royal College of Pathologists
FRCPSFellow Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons
FRCPsychFellow Royal College of Psychiatrists
FRCRFellow Royal College of Radiologists
FRCSFellow Royal College of Surgeons
FRSFellow of the Royal Society
FRSHFellow Royal Society of Health
FSEfetal scalp electrode
FSHfollicle-stimulating hormone
FVCforced vital capacity
>greater than
GAgeneral anaesthetic
GABSGroup A beta-haemolytic streptococcus
GADglutamic acid decarboxylase
GALTgut-associated lymphoid tissue
GARSgait abnormality rating scale
GBMglomerular basement membrane
GCAgiant cell arteritis
G-CSFgranulocyte colony-stimulating factor
GDMgestational diabetes mellitus
GDSGeriatric Depression Scale
GHRHgrowth hormone-releasing hormone
GIFTgamete intrafallopian transfer
GISTgastrointestinal stromal tumour
GITgastrointestinal tract
GPGeneral Practitioner
GPiglobus pallidus interna
GRglucocorticoid receptor
GRBASGrade, Roughness, Breathy voice, Asthenia and Strain
GREGguideline recommendation and evidence grading
GVHDgraft-versus-host disease
HA-MRSAhospital-acquired MRSA
HAARThighly active antiretroviral therapy
HACCPHazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
HAMHTLV-1-associated myelopathy
HaNDLheadache and neurological deficits + CSF lymphocytosis
HAVhepatitis A virus
HAVShand-arm vibration syndrome
HBcAghepatitis B core antigen
HBeAghepatitis B e antigen
HBsAghepatitis B surface antigen
HCTDhereditary connective tissue disorders
HDCVhuman diploid cell vaccine
HFNEFheart failure with a normal ejection fraction
HFPSFheart failure with preserved systolic function
HGPRThypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
HibHaemophilus influenzae type b
HIDAhepatobiliary imino-diacetic acid
HIFUhigh-intensity focused ultrasound
HNIGhuman normal immunoglobulin
HNPPhereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies
HOCMhypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
HoLEPholmium laser enucleation of the prostate
HONKhyperosmolar non-ketotic coma
HOOFHome Oxygen Order Form
HPA CHaPDHPA Chemical Hazards and Poisons Division
HPA NPISHPA National Poisons Information Service
HPNhome parenteral nutrition
HPUHealth Protection Unit
HRCThigh-resolution CT
HRVheart rate variability
HSCHealth and Social Care
hs-CRPhigh-sensitivity C-reactive protein
HTLV-1human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1
HVAhomovanillic acid
HVPGhepatic venous pressure gradient
HYVETHY pertension in the V ery E lderly T rial
IABPintra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation
ICAM-1intercellular adhesion molecule-1
ICASIndependent Complaints Advocacy Services
ICDimplantable cardiac defibrillator
ICHDInternational Classification of Headache Disorders
ICPintracranial pressure
ICP-MSinductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
ICSintercostal space
ICSIintracytoplasmic sperm injection
ICUintensive care unit
IDDMinsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
IDIFindirect immunofluorescence
IEinfective endocarditis
IGF-Iinsulin-like growth factor-I
IGFBP-3insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3
IGTimpaired glucose tolerance
IHDischaemic heart disease
IMBintermenstrual bleeding
IMiDimmunomodulatory drug
IPPVintermittent positive pressure ventilation
IPRimpaired polysaccharide responsiveness
IPVinactivated polio vaccine
IQCODEInformant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly
IRMAintraretinal microvascular abnormality
IRTimmunoreactive trypsinogen
ISSInjury Severity Score
IUCDintrauterine contraceptive device
IUIintrauterine insemination
in vivowithin the living
IVF-ETin vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer
IVIGintravenous immunoglobulin
IVIIIV insulin infusion
IVPintravenous pyelogram
IVRAintravenous regional anaesthesia
IVUintravenous urogram
JCVIJoint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation
JVPjugular venous pressure
KJknee jerk
KOHpotassium hydroxide
KRknee reflex
KTPpotassium titanyl phosphate
<less than
LAlocal anaesthetic
LAlupus anticoagulant
LABAslong-acting beta2 agonists
LACIslacunar infarcts
LAIVlive attenuated influenza vaccine
LAMBlentigines, atrial myxoma, mucocutaneous myxoma, blue naevi
LAPleukocyte alkaline phosphatase
LARClong-acting reversible contraceptive
LASEKlaser epithelial keratomileusis
LASIKlaser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
LAUPlaser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty
LCRligase chain reaction
LDHlactate dehydrogenase
LFHomLicensed Associate of the Faculty of Homeopathy
LFTsliver function tests
LGIBlower gastrointestinal tract bleeding
LHluteinising hormone
LHHlikelihood of being helped or harmed
LHRHaluteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist
LIFleft iliac fossa
LINksLocal Involvement Networks
LLETZlarge loop excision of the transformation zone
LMAlaryngeal mask airway
LMPlast menstrual period
LMWHlow molecular weight heparin
LOCloss of consciousness
LODlaparoscopic ovarian 'drilling'
LSCSlower segment Caesarean section
LSDlysergic acid diethylamide
LTKlaser thermal keratoplasty
μg (mcg)microgram
m3cubic metre
mm3cubic millimetre
mm Hgmillimetre of mercury
MACmembrane attack complex
MALTmucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
MAOIsmonoamine oxidase inhibitors
MBAcAMember British Acupuncture Association
MB BChBachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
MB BChirBachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
MB BSBachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
MB ChBBachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
MBLmannose-binding lectin
MCADmedium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
MChmean corpuscular haemoglobin
MCHMaster of Surgery
MChirMaster of Surgery
MChOrthMaster of Orthopaedic Surgery
MCImild cognitive impairment
MClinPsycholMaster of Clinical Psychology
MCOTmobile cardiac outpatient telemetry
MCRmajor cytogenetic remission
MC&Smicroscopy, culture and sensitivity
MCTDmixed connective tissue disease
MCUGmicturating cystourethrogram
MCVmean cell volume
MDDoctor of Medicine
MDTmultidrug therapy
MEBmuscle-eye-brain (disease)
MELmaximum exposure limit
MELDmodel for end-stage liver disease
MENmultiple endocrine neoplasia
MenCmeningitis C
MERITMedical Emergency Response Incident Team
MEWDSmultiple evanescent white dot syndrome
MFCPUmultifocal choroiditis with panuveitis
MFFPMember Faculty of Family Planning
MFHomMember of the Faculty of Homeopathy
MFOMMember Faculty of Occupational Medicine
MFPHMMember Faculty of Public Health Medicine
MFPRmultifetal pregnancy reduction
MGUSmonoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
MIDmulti-infarct dementia
MIOMedical Incident Officer
MISMüllerian-inhibiting substance
Mitfmicrophthalmia transcription factor
MKPmelanoma of known primary source
MMedMaster of Medicine
MMedSciMaster of Medical Science
MMRmeasles, mumps and rubella
MODYmaturity onset diabetes of the young
MOHmedicine overuse headache
MPIGMinimum Practice Income Guarantee
MRmodified release
MRAmagnetic renal angiography
MRCGPMember Royal College of General Practitioners
MRCOGMember Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
MRCPMember Royal College of Physicians
MRCPathMember Royal College of Pathologists
MRCPsychMember Royal College of Psychiatrists
MRCSMember Royal College of Surgeons
MRImagnetic resonance imaging
MRCPmagnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
MRSAmeticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MRVmagnetic resonance venography
MSAFPmaternal serum alpha-fetoprotein
MSLTmultiple sleep latency test
MSSAmeticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus
MSUmid-stream specimen of urine
MTCTmother-to-child transmission
MUAmanipulation under anaesthetic
MUDmatched unrelated donor
MUPmelanoma of unknown primary source
MUGAmultiple-gated acquisition
MUPSmedically unexplained physical symptoms
MUSmedically unexplained symptoms
MuSKmuscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase
NAATnucleic acid amplification test
NABSAnucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique
NADnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADPnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NAMEnaevi, atrial myxoma, myxoid neurofibroma and ephilides
NASHnon-alcoholic steatohepatitis
NaTHNaCNational Travel Health Network and Centre
NBTnitroblue tetrazolium
NCSnerve conduction studies
NDInephrogenic diabetes insipidus
NEniacin equivalents
NESPnovel erythropoiesis stimulating protein
NICENational Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
NICUneonatal intensive care unit
NIDDMnon insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
NISSNew Injury Severity Score
NIVnon-invasive ventilation
NNHnumber needed to harm
NNRTInon-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NNTnumber needed to treat
NOIDsNotifications of Infectious Diseases
NPFNurse Prescribers' Formulary
NPISNational Poisons Information Service
NPPVnoninvasive positive pressure ventilation
NRTInucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NSAIDnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSEneuron-specific enolase
NSTACSnon-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome
NSTEMInon-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction
NTDneural tube defect
NT-proBNPN-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide
NVHnon-visible haematuria
OAESotoacoustic emissions screen
OATSosteoarticular transplantation
OC&Pova, cysts and parasites
OCToptical coherence tomography
odomni die (every day)
OESoccupational exposure standard
omomni mane (every morning)
OMIMOnline Mendelian Inheritence in Man
onomni nocte (every night)
OGTToral glucose tolerance test
OPCABoff-pump coronary artery bypass
ORodds ratio
ORIFopen reduction internal fixation
PACGprimary angle closure glaucoma
PACTprescribing analysis and cost tabulation
PAGEpolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PAIphotoacoustic imaging
PAIRPuncture, Aspiration, Injection, Re-aspiration
PALSPatient Advice and Liaison Services
PAMproton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, metronidazole
PAPP-Apregnancy-associated plasma protein-A
PAPSprimary antiphospholipid syndrome
PASperiodic acid-Schiff
PATHProteinuria/Antiphospholipid syndrome/Thrombocytopenia/Hypertension
PBPprogressive bulbar palsy
pcpost cibum (after food)
PCBpost-coital bleeding
PCCPatient Client Council
PCECpurified chick embryo cell
PCIpercutaneous coronary intervention
PCNLpercutaneous nephrolithotomy
PCNSLprimary central nervous system lymphoma
PCOSpolycystic ovary syndrome
PCRpolymerase chain reaction
PCVpneumococcal conjugate vaccine
PCWPpulmonary capillary wedge pressure
PDApatent ductus arteriosus
PDDpervasive developmental disorder
PDLpulsed dye laser
PDTphotodynamic therapy
PEApulseless electrical activity
PECSpicture exchange communication system
PEEPpositive end-expiratory pressure
PEGpercutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
PEPpost-exposure prophylaxis
PEPSEpost-exposure prophylaxis after sexual exposure
PERLApupils equal + react to light and accommodation
PESTpsoriasis epidemiology screening tool
PETpositron emission tomography
PF(R)peak flow (rate)
PIprotease inhibitor
PICpunctate inner choroidopathy
PICUpaediatric intensive care unit
PIPproximal interphalangeal
PIVKA-IIprotein induced from vitamin K absence
PJRTpermanent junctional re-entrant tachycardia
PLDHpegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride
PLHApeople living with HIV/AIDS
PLMSperiodic limb movements of sleep
PLP1proteolipid protein-1
PLSprimary lateral sclerosis
PMAprogressive muscular atrophy
PMETBPostgraduate Medical Education Training Board
PMLprogressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
PMRpolymyalgia rheumatica
PNDpostnasal drip
poper os by mouth
POAGprimary open angle glaucoma
POCTpoint of care test
POEMPatient-oriented Eczema Measure
POICprogestogen-only injectable contraceptive
PoMprescription-only medication
POPplaster of Paris
POSDIprogestogen-only subdermal implant
POSEprimary obesity surgery, endoscopic
POTSpostural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
PPpancreatic polypeptide
PPpsychogenic polydipsia
PPDpurified protein derivative
PPEpersonal protective equipment
PPIproton pump inhibitor
ppmparts per million
PPRA-gammaperoxisome proliferator-activated gamma
PPROMpreterm, prelabour rupture of membranes
PPVpneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
PRprogesterone receptor
PRApreoperative risk assessment
prnpro re nata (when required)
PRNPPR ioN P rotein
PRPpolyribosyl ribitol phosphate
PSAprostate specific antigen
PSVTparoxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
PTprothrombin time
PTBDpercutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage
PTCApercutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PTHparathyroid hormone
PTRAApercutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty
PUFApolyunsaturated fatty acid
PUNSPatient's Unmet Needs
PUOpyrexia of unknown origin
PVApolyvinyl alcohol
PVSpersistent vegetative state
qadquoque alternis die (every other day)
qamquaque die ante meridiem (every day before noon)
qdquaque die (every day)
qdsquater die sumendum (to be taken four times daily)
qhquaque hora (every hour)
qhsquaque hora somni (every night at bedtime)
qidquattuor in die (four times a day)
qodevery other day
qpmquaque die post meridiem (every day after noon)
qqhquarta quaque hora (every four hours)
®registered trademark
RAADProutine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis
RADSReynolds' Adolescent Depression Scale
RAEBrefractory anaemia with excess blasts
RAEBtrefractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation
RAPDrelevant afferent pupil defect
RARSrefractory anaemia with ringed sideroblasts
RASrenin angiotensin system
RASTradioallergosorbent test
RCAroot cause analysis
RCDSReynolds' Child Depression Scale
RCGPRoyal College of General Practitioners
RCNRoyal College of Nursing
RCOGRoyal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
RCTrandomised controlled trial
RDSrespiratory distress syndrome
RDTrapid diagnostic test
REBTrational emotive behavioural therapy
REEresting energy expenditure
rFVIIarecombinant activated factor VIIa
rHArecombinant haemagglutinin
rhG-CSFrecombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
rHuEPOrecombinant human erythropoietin
RICERest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
RIFright iliac fossa
RIFLERisk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage kidney disease
RIMAReversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A
rINNRecommended International Non-proprietary Name
RLSrestless legs syndrome
RMOresponsible medical officer
rNArecombinant neuraminidase
RPGNrapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
RPRrapid plasmin reagin
RPS19small ribosomal protein 19
RPSGBRoyal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain
RRRrelative risk reduction
RSIrepetitive strain injury
RTArenal tubular acidosis
RUQright upper quadrant
RVOTright ventricular outflow tract
SABREserious and adverse blood reactions and events
SADseasonal affective disorder
SADsocial anxiety disorder
SAHsubarachnoid haemorrhage
SALTskin-associated lymphoid tissue
SBEsubacute bacterial endocarditis
SCDsudden cardiac death
SCHINSowerby Centre for Health Informatics at Newcastle
SCIDsevere combined immune deficiency
SCSspinal cord stimulation
SCTsupervised community treatment
SEGAsubependymal giant cell astrocytoma
SENsubependymal nodule
SERMsselective (o)estrogen receptor modulators
SFHsymphyseal fundal height
SGAsmall for gestational age
SHOXstature homeobox-containing gene
SHSsexual health screen
SIGNScottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network
SIRSsystemic inflammatory response syndrome
SITREPsituation report
SJsupinator jerk
SLEsystemic lupus erythematosus
SLRstraight leg raise
SLSselected list scheme
SMCScottish Medicines Consortium
SNOMEDStandardised Nomenclature of Medicine
SNRIsserotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
s-NVHsymptomatic non-visible haematuria
SOCOsScene of Crime Officers
SPCSummary of Product Characteristics
SPECTsingle-photon emission computed tomography scanning
SpRSpecialist Registrar
SPRMselective progesterone receptor modulator
SRsupinator reflex
SRSsomatostatin receptor scintigraphy
SRTstructured reflective template
SSRIselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
SSSsubclavian steal syndrome
STARTScreening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment
statstatim (immediately)
STEMIST segment elevation myocardial infarction
STNsubthalamic nucleus
STOPPScreening Tool of Older Persons Prescriptions
SURUSSSerum Urine and Ultrasound Screening Study
SVTssupraventricular tachycardias
SXAsingle energy X-ray absorptiometry
SXRskull X-ray
TACEtranscatheter arterial chemoembolisation
TAPPtransabdominal preperitoneal
TATTStired all the time syndrome
TBSAtotal burn surface area
TDFtenofovir DF
Td/IPVtetanus, diphtheria and polio
tdster die sumendum (to be taken three days daily)
TEEtransoesophageal echocardiography
TENStranscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
TEPtotally extraperitoneal
TESEtesticular sperm extraction
TEVARthoracic endovascular aneurysm/aortic repair
TIAtransient ischaemic attack
tidter in die (three times daily)
TIPStransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
TIVAStotally implantable venous access system
tiwthree times a week
TJtriceps jerk
TKItyrosine kinase inhibitor
TLCtotal lung capacity
TMStranscranial magnetic stimulation
TNAtransient neurological attack
TOPtermination of pregnancy
tPAtissue plasminogen activator
TPNtotal parenteral nutrition
TRtriceps reflex
TRALItransfusion-related acute lung injury
TRISSTrauma and Injury Severity Score
TRTtinnitus retraining therapy
TSEtransmissible spongiform encephalopathy
TSHthyroid-stimulating hormone
TSStoxic shock syndrome
TTEtransthoracic echocardiography
tTGtissue transglutaminase
TUIPtransurethral incision of the prostate
TURPtransurethral resection of the prostate
TUVPtransurethral vaporisation of the prostate
TYMTest Your Memory
U&Eurea and electrolytes
UCTDunclassified connective tissue disorder
udut dictum (as directed)
UGIBupper gastrointestinal bleeding
ULNupper limit of normal
UPDuniparental disomy
UPSIunprotected sexual intercourse
URAunilateral renal agenesis
VATSvideo-assisted thoracoscopic surgery
VCAviral capsid antigen
VEPvisual evoked potential
VFventricular fibrillation
VGCCvoltage-gated calcium channel
VHvisible haematuria
VIPvasoactive intestinal polypeptide
VLCFAvery long chain fatty acids
VLDLvery low-density lipoprotein
VMAvanillylmandelic acid
VPIvelopharyngeal insufficiency
VTventricular tachycardia
VTEC O157verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157
WASPWiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
WATCHWorking Group on the Assessment of Toxic Chemicals
WBH-DTIwhole-brain histogram of diffusion tensor imaging
WCCwhite cell count
WHOWorld Health Organization
WLLwhole-lung lavage
WRIGHTWHO Research into global hazards of travel
XDRextensively drug-resistant

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