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Prevention of falls in elderly people

Medical Professionals

Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find one of our health articles more useful.

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Falls in elderly people

Falls in elderly people are a major threat to older adults' quality of life, often causing a decline in self-care ability and participation in physical and social activities. Fear of falling can lead to further limiting of activity, independent of injury. Comorbidity is a serious problem both in terms of contributing to the cause of the fall and to the outcome.1

Falls in elderly people can be devastating to the affected individual but are also expensive to manage. In particular, when associated with fracture of the proximal femur, they carry a high morbidity and mortality. Even lesser falls lead to loss of self-confidence and reduced quality of life. This can also have significant economic consequences because of the cost of inpatient care and also loss of independence and the cost of residential care. Current estimates are that falls cost the NHS more than £2.3 billion per year.2

Prevalence of falls in elderly people (epidemiology)

Falls and fall-related injuries are a common and serious problem for older people. People aged 65 and older have the highest risk of falling, with 30% of people older than 65 and 50% of people older than 80 falling at least once a year.3

About 5% of falls in elderly people who live in the community result in a fracture or hospitalisation. Between 10% and 25% of falls in nursing homes and hospitals result in a fracture.4

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Risk factors for falls in older adults

Risk of falls in elderly people

These are many and varied with often more than one risk factor in the individual affected. It is essential to consider these when looking at preventative measures. Identification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, is important in this context.

Risk factors for falls include:3 5

  • Age >80.

  • Female gender (this may be a true gender difference or a result of women being more likely to seek medical care and advice after a fall).6

  • Low weight.

  • A history of fall in the previous year.

  • Dependency in activities of daily living.

  • Orthostatic hypotension - one study reported a 69% increased risk of having an injurious fall during the first 45 days following antihypertensive treatment.7

  • Medication - the leading culprits are psychotropics (especially benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics), blood pressure-lowering drugs and anticonvulsants.8

  • Polypharmacy - a 14% increase in fall risk in one study with the addition of each medication beyond a four-medication regime, irrespective of the group of drugs studied.9

  • Alcohol misuse.

  • Diabetes mellitus.

  • Confusion and cognitive impairment.

  • Disturbed vision.

  • Disturbed balance or co-ordination.

  • Gait disorders.

  • Urinary incontinence.

  • Inappropriate footwear.

  • Environmental factors including home hazards.

  • Muscle weakness.

  • Depression.

Risk of injury from falls in elderly people

It is also instructive to examine the risk factors for fracture of the proximal femur. In so doing, this reveals risk factors not just for falls but for falls resulting in injury. Again, an individual may have several risk factors. These include:

Weak bones
With increasing age, conditions which predispose to weakness and fracture occur - for example:

Predisposition to falls
This includes the risk factors listed above as examples from research literature. Dementia is a particular risk factor for falls.10 In those with dementia, impaired visuospatial ability is often associated with increased risk of falling.

Poor self-protection
This is common in the elderly. Examples include:

  • Lack of protective subcutaneous fat.

  • Neurological problems (preventing reflex breaking or cushioning of the the fall).

  • Falls associated with loss of consciousness (for example, syncope).

  • Motor and sensory problems.

  • Multiple contributory factors (for example, slow and stiff joints, drugs and environmental factors are a common combination of factors).

Symptoms of falls in elderly people

Falling will present either with injuries or as a result of direct questioning. Many older people do not volunteer that they are falling and guidelines suggest healthcare professionals should routinely inquire about falls in the previous year.3 4


A detailed history is essential. If possible, obtain some collateral history:

  • Was the fall an isolated event or one of many? If many, is there any pattern? How often do they occur? Are they becoming more frequent? Does there seem to be any common precipitating factor? Was alcohol involved?

  • What caused the fall? Sometimes the fall is attributed simply to tripping over a loose rug or a trailing electrical cable, for example. This is not a medical problem but requires a home safety assessment with a visit by a health visitor or other suitably trained professional to identify other risks that require attention. Frequently, multi-agency home safety assessments can be done simultaneously - eg, identifying fire hazards or home security problems.

  • What was the patient doing at the time? Was it something involving exertion? Did it involve looking up? Extending the neck to look inside a low cupboard or to do high dusting risks vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Older people should be discouraged from climbing on chairs or ladders since they are more likely to fall in these situations and will fall further, incurring more serious injuries. Postural hypotension usually occurs on suddenly getting up from sitting or from lying in bed - typically, on getting out of bed to go to the toilet in the night. Micturition syncope affects men, usually as they stand up at the toilet, attempting to pass urine nocturnally. Does the patient have a sleep disorder? These are reasonably common in older people and may contribute to the risk of falling.

  • Was there any loss of consciousness? Syncope (or blackouts) can be associated with cardiac or neurological symptoms.

  • Was there any warning before the fall? Was there any loss of balance? If terms like 'giddy', 'dizzy' or 'faint' are used, explore what is meant.

  • How was the patient after the fall? Whilst they may have felt shaken or injured, features such as weakness that made getting up again difficult, aching muscles or disorientation may indicate the postictal phase of a fit. Incontinence is an unreliable sign of epilepsy and can occur with other causes of loss of consciousness. A bitten tongue is more specific.The weakness of a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) may last just a few minutes and leave no residue. Difficulty with language may indicate a TIA.

  • A witness can describe exactly what happened before, during and after the fall. There may be a description of tonic and clonic phases of convulsion but this does not necessarily imply epilepsy from a space-occupying lesion or cerebral degeneration, as cerebral ischaemia from poor cardiac output due to arrhythmia can produce the same. A witness may be better than the patient at ascertaining confusion following the fall and noting how long it lasted.

  • If history suggests tripping over things, ask about eyesight and when last assessed by an optician. There may be blurred vision or gradual loss of vision. Visual field defects may not be apparent to the patient.

Past medical history

  • Look at medical history and current medication.

  • Note history of heart disease and diabetes. Is the patient at increased risk of arrhythmias, TIAs, stroke, peripheral neuropathies or hypoglycaemic episodes, for example?

  • Most modern treatments for hypertension are less likely to produce postural hypotension than older ones but it may still occur. Alpha-blockers, including phenothiazines, can drop blood pressure. Review all drugs, especially those that may cause confusion or sedation.

General enquiry

Ask about general health:

  • Is appetite good and weight steady? A negative reply may point to more serious underlying disease. How is mobility? Is locomotion becoming slow and laboured?

  • What is the normal functional status of the patient? Do they require assistance dressing, washing, cooking, for example?

  • Are mental faculties still sound or is there evidence of cognitive decline?


  • Mental state:

    • Does the patient seem alert and orientated or vague and confused? The mini mental state examination may be useful.

    • Decline in mental state may indicate a cause for the falls or it may be the result if head injury has caused a chronic subdural haematoma.

  • Visual impairment:

    • If there is suggestion of poor sight then examination of the eyes should at least include reading a Snellen chart.

    • Macular degeneration and visual field defects should be considered as other possibilities.

  • Cardiovascular examination:

    • Examination of the pulse may reveal irregularities suggestive of atrial fibrillation, variable heart block or just bradycardia. Tachycardia may be a feature of congestive heart failure. In fast atrial fibrillation the irregularity may be difficult to detect.

    • Record blood pressure in sitting and standing, especially if there is any suggestion of postural hypotension. A drop of more than 20 mm Hg in the systolic blood pressure on standing is significant.

    • Listen for bruits over the bifurcation of the carotid arteries but also in the posterior triangle of the neck to detect bruits from the vertebral arteries.

    • Auscultation of the heart may give better indication of irregularities than the radial pulse and it may indicate aortic stenosis or regurgitation or mitral stenosis or regurgitation.

  • Neurological and locomotor examination:

    • Note muscle wasting that may reflect disuse atrophy, often secondary to arthritis.

    • Note muscle tone.

    • A brief assessment of the sensory system may indicate a peripheral neuropathy. Loss of vibration sense can be a marker for posterior column disease with associated loss of proprioception.

    • Asymmetrical tendon reflexes and any extensor plantar response are significant.

    • Try to reproduce vertebrobasilar symptoms by asking the patient to extend their neck to the full and to hold it for several seconds and repeat with flexion and full rotation to the left and right.

    • Check for nystagmus and briefly for co-ordination.

    • Note how the patient gets up from the chair. There may be proximal myopathy but, in the elderly, disuse atrophy is more common. Is gait normal? Is there asymmetry? Some gait abnormalities may be due to arthritis. Look for features that may indicate Parkinson's disease.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends the following as being pragmatic tests which can be used in any situation and without the use of special equipment:4

  • Timed Up and Go Test: request that the patient rise from a chair without the support of their arms, walk three metres, turn round and sit down again. A walking aid can be used if required. Completion of the test without unsteadiness or difficulty suggests a low risk of falling.

  • Turn 180° Test: request that the patient stand up and step around until they are facing the opposite direction. If more than four steps are required to do this, further assessment is indicated.

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The scope for prevention of falls in elderly people

The scope for prevention can be appreciated by considering some of the common conditions and risk factors predisposing to falls in elderly people. From this, the wide range of preventative measures and treatment possibilities can be appreciated. Falls should be considered a symptom rather than a diagnosis, so that when a patient, usually an elderly person, presents with a history of falls, effort should be made to find the cause or causes.

A Cochrane review found that:11

  • Group and home-based exercise programmes and home safety interventions reduce the rate of falls and risk of falling.

  • Multifactorial assessment and intervention programmes reduce the rate of falls but not the risk of falling.

  • T'ai chi reduces the risk of falling.

Environmental factors for falls in elderly people

Falls in elderly people caused by accidents related to the patient's environment can often be prevented. NICE recommends that all people at risk of falls should be offered a home assessment and interventions to modify environmental hazards.3 For example:

  • Loose rugs or mats (especially on a slippery floor).

  • Electricity leads (trailing across the floor).

  • Wet surfaces (especially in the bathroom).

  • Lighting.

  • Furniture.

  • Fittings such as handholds.

Measures such as the installation of handles and rails can reduce the risk of falls.The community team may work in association with the local council to install these without charge to the patient.

Power and balance3

Rising from a chair and walking around the room require muscular power, proprioception and balance. Inactivity, perhaps associated with joint pain, as in osteoarthritis, results in weakness of muscles, loss of joint position sense and loss of balance. Hence:

  • Exercise:

    • Patients should be encouraged to keep active and to exercise as much as possible. This strengthens muscles and maintains joint position sense and balance.12

    • A Cochrane review found some evidence to support certain types of exercise (eg, those directed towards improving balance and gait) whilst there was insufficient evidence to draw any conclusions about general physical activity.13

    • Exercise programmes may potentially assist in preventing falls in elderly people with dementia living in the community.14

  • Elderly people who have had a fall particularly may lose confidence and become less active.

  • Activity must be encouraged - for example, after retirement.

  • Activity may have to be modified to suit the individual's needs and fitness.

  • A wide variety of activities (from dancing to t'ai chi) can be undertaken, often with the secondary gain of social contact.

  • Activities which develop power and balance are particularly helpful.

  • Establishing a network of local exercise-related activities and organisations may be helpful. Meetings and activities can be promoted with, for example, advertisements in the practice.

Neurological problems3

There may be neurological disease causing motor and sensory impairment and increased risk of falls. For example:

  • Even minor strokes can cause significant weakness.

  • Parkinson's disease impairs mobility (abnormal posture, freezing of gait, frontal impairment, poor leaning balance and leg weakness are independent risk factors).15

  • Neuropathy may occur with, for example, diabetes.

  • Proximal myopathy (from, for example, thyrotoxicosis, Cushing's syndrome and use of steroids) may impair mobility, particularly rising from sitting.

  • Conditions that impair co-ordination will impair mobility and predispose to falls.

  • Cognitive impairment may impair co-ordination. This may not be immediately apparent but the patient may have early and concealed dementia predisposing to falls. The recognition of dementia can be difficult; however, cognitive screening tests such as the Six-item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT) can help.

Where possible, the underlying disease should be treated. A multidisciplinary approach with input from physiotherapy, occupational therapy and perhaps social care, is often required.


  • Alcohol may cause a number of problems which predispose to falls.

  • Even modest social alcohol consumption may compound or exacerbate other risk factors for falls.

  • Falls represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in problem drinkers of all ages.

  • The recognition of alcohol misuse is often difficult:

    • Relatives may express concern.

    • People who misuse alcohol are often very adept at concealing the problem.

    • The problem may occur after a fall has led to admission to hospital and subsequent behavioural problems are not recognised as delirium tremens.

  • Intoxication causes acute instability.

  • Chronic alcoholism may cause complications predisposing to falls:

    • Polyneuropathy.

    • Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    • Korsakoff's psychosis.

  • A blood test may confirm, for example:

    • Macrocytosis.

    • Abnormal LFTs (raised gamma GT).

  • Treatment of alcoholism or problem drinking in the elderly can be very difficult.

Loss of consciousness (LOC)

LOC is often followed by a fall. It may result from a variety of causes - for example:

Drop attacks17

Drop attacks consist of sudden falls without prodromes, trigger factors or loss of consciousness and with instantaneous recovery to baseline status. They are usually explained by a transient bilateral disorder involving structures of the central nervous system responsible for postural tonus and balance. The account of a witness is most helpful. Causes may include:

  • Cardiovascular disease (as for those causes associated with loss of consciousness but in a less severe form).

  • Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (tends to cause drop attacks rather than syncope).

  • TIAs (there may be weakness or confusion for a few seconds or several minutes with no residual neurological signs).

  • Orthostatic hypotension (a fall of at least 20 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure or 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure on moving from a supine to an upright position) may result from:

    • Dehydration.

    • Treatment of hypertension.

    • Autonomic neuropathy.

    • Reduced adaptability of the ageing circulation.

Visual disturbance

NICE has found no firm evidence that treatment of visual disturbance as a single intervention reduces falls but agrees it is good practice to treat impaired vision where found.3 Gradual loss of vision has many causes. These include:

Referral to an optician can be useful in diagnosis and management.


Medication can contribute to falls in many ways and needs to be reviewed regularly, taking into account risk and benefit. Examples of the ways in which medication can increase the risk of falls include:

  • Sedative medication, including hypnotics (may impair co-ordination and cause falls). There is a particular risk of falls in agitated patients with cognitive impairment.

  • Confusion, particularly from psychotropic medication, may increase the risk of falls.

  • Polypharmacy is common in elderly patients. The scope for interactions and other effects likely to cause falls is increased.

  • Orthostatic hypotension caused by:

    • Diuretics (can cause dehydration and may cause urgency and falls).

    • Vasodilators (including calcium-channel blockers and nitrates).

    • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.

    • Alpha-blockers.

    • Phenothiazines.

    • Tricyclic antidepressants.

    • Levodopa.

    • Bromocriptine.

    • Beta-blockers.

    • Insulin.


Investigations will depend on the likely/possible diagnoses indicated by a through history and examination. investigations may include:

  • Basic blood tests including:

    • FBC (macrocytosis may indicate alcohol misuse).

    • U&Es.

    • LFTs - abnormal LFTs may indicate alcohol misuse, especially gamma GT.

    • TFTs.

    • Vitamin B12.

    • Random blood glucose.

  • Urinalysis may reveal unsuspected diabetes to account for vascular disease, neuropathy and poor vision.

  • ECG to confirm or suggest:

    • Atrial fibrillation.

    • Conduction defects where there is a prolonged PR interval, inferior ischaemia or bundle branch block.

  • Ambulatory ECG may be required to discover episodes of bradycardia with possible heart block or even tachyarrhythmia.

  • Echocardiography is indicated in heart failure, atrial fibrillation and valvular disease, to assess ventricular or valvular function or to detect atrial thrombus.

  • Visual assessment by an optician.

  • Syncope or TIAs require additional investigations including neuro-imaging.

Putting prevention of falls in elderly people into practice3

The aetiology of falls in elderly people is usually multifactorial. The most effective prevention of falls is likely to involve a multidisciplinary, holistic and patient-specific approach. Measures should take into account the person's preferences, medical conditions, social circumstances and psychological factors.

One review found that exercise alone and various combinations of interventions (eg, vision assessment and treatment, environmental assessment and modification, comprehensive geriatric assessment, calcium supplementation, and vitamin D supplementation) were associated with lower risk of injurious falls compared with usual care.18

In care facilities: the effect of exercise on rate of falls and the risk of falling and multifactorial interventions is less certain.19

Approaches may involve:

Primary prevention

This means taking measures to prevent falls in people who have not fallen. Examples include:

  • Increasing exercise and physical activity. Exercise as a single intervention can prevent falls in community-dwelling older people. Exercise programmes that challenge balance and include a greater amount of exercise have larger effects.20

  • Reviewing medication.

  • Changing adverse environmental factors.

  • Improving management of any medical conditions.

Secondary prevention

This means taking measures to prevent further falls in those who have had a previous fall/falls (with or without injury). Examples are likely to be similar to those for primary prevention but will be more focused in the light of information about the fall/falls. Those who have already had a fall are at much higher risk of further falls.

Secondary prevention is likely to target resources more effectively.

Who should be involved in prevention?3

Many clinical commissioning groups now have a multidisciplinary falls team who can assess and treat those at risk but members of the primary care team should also contribute to the falls prevention strategy. Informal carers and local communities can also play a part. One study found that encouraging patients to manage their own exercise-based falls prevention programme improves compliance and that physiotherapists should become 'enablers' rather than 'experts'.21 22

Anyone who has been admitted to hospital as a result of a fall or who has been identified as being at-risk should be assessed.

What measures are effective?3

NICE has identified four interventions with evidence-based effectiveness:

  • Strength and balance training.

  • Home hazard intervention and follow-up.

  • Medication review.

  • Cardiac pacing where indicated.

Methods deemed ineffective or with an equivocal evidence base include:

  • Brisk walking (may be hazardous in postmenopausal women).

  • Low-intensity exercise combined with continence training.

  • Cognitive and behavioural interventions.

  • Referral for visual disturbance (but should not be discouraged on grounds of good practice).

  • Vitamin D (may help to improve bone strength and risk of falling but uncertainty over contribution that it makes to fracture reduction means NICE refrains from making a firm recommendation at the moment).

  • Hip protectors (equivocal results in trials).

Falls prevention in hospital3

NICE recommends that the following patients should be considered at risk of falls (prior use of risk assessment tool not necessary):

  • All patients over the age of 65.

  • All patients aged 50-64 judged by a clinician to be at risk of falls by virtue of their condition.

A multifactorial assessment should be performed which should include:

  • Cognitive impairment.

  • Continence problems.

  • History of falls, including causes and consequences (such as injury and fear of falling).

  • Footwear that is unsuitable or missing.

  • Health problems that may increase their risk of falling.

  • Medication.

  • Postural instability, mobility problems and/or balance problems.

  • Syncope syndrome.

  • Visual impairment.

Multifactorial interventions should be offered which should:

  • Promptly address the patient's identified individual risk factors for falling in hospital.

  • Take account of whether the risk factors can be treated, improved or managed during the patient's expected stay.

Education and information giving3

  • Compliance is best achieved by involving patients in decisions about their care and finding out how much change they are prepared to make to prevent falls.

  • Information should be available in languages other than English.

  • Information - both oral arid written - should be given to patients and carers and should include:

    • Measures that can be taken to prevent further falls.

    • The importance of persevering with fall prevention strategies such as exercise or strength and balancing components.

    • The physical and psychological benefits of modifying falls risk.

    • Sources of further information.

    • How to summon help in the event of a fall.

Further reading and references

  • Falls and fracture consensus statement; Public Health England with the National Falls Prevention Coordination Group member organisations, January 2017
  • Ganz DA, Latham NK; Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 20;382(8):734-743. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1903252.
  1. Phelan EA, Mahoney JE, Voit JC, et al; Assessment and management of fall risk in primary care settings. Med Clin North Am. 2015 Mar;99(2):281-93. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2014.11.004.
  2. Falls in older people: assessment after a fall and preventing further falls; NICE Quality Standards, March 2015 (updated Jan 2017)
  3. Falls: assessment and prevention of falls in older people; NICE Clinical Guideline (June 2013)
  4. Falls - risk assessment; NICE CKS, January 2019 (UK access only)
  5. Rubenstein LZ; Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age Ageing. 2006 Sep;35 Suppl 2:ii37-ii41.
  6. Stevens JA, Ballesteros MF, Mack KA, et al; Gender differences in seeking care for falls in the aged Medicare population. Am J Prev Med. 2012 Jul;43(1):59-62. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.03.008.
  7. Butt DA, Mamdani M, Austin PC, et al; The risk of falls on initiation of antihypertensive drugs in the elderly. Osteoporos Int. 2013 Apr 24.
  8. Hartikainen S, Lonnroos E, Louhivuori K; Medication as a risk factor for falls: critical systematic review. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007 Oct;62(10):1172-81.
  9. Freeland KN, Thompson AN, Zhao Y, et al; Medication use and associated risk of falling in a geriatric outpatient population. Ann Pharmacother. 2012 Sep;46(9):1188-92. doi: 10.1345/aph.1Q689. Epub 2012 Aug 7.
  10. Kropelin TF, Neyens JC, Halfens RJ, et al; Fall determinants in older long-term care residents with dementia: a systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2013 Apr;25(4):549-63. doi: 10.1017/S1041610212001937. Epub 2012 Dec 20.
  11. Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, et al; Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;9:CD007146. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007146.pub3.
  12. Ciolac EG; Exercise training as a preventive tool for age-related disorders: a brief review. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013 May;68(5). pii: S1807-59322013000500710. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2013(05)20.
  13. Howe TE, Rochester L, Neil F, et al; Exercise for improving balance in older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Nov 9;(11):CD004963. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004963.pub3.
  14. Burton E, Cavalheri V, Adams R, et al; Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Interv Aging. 2015 Feb 9;10:421-34. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S71691. eCollection 2015.
  15. Latt MD, Lord SR, Morris JG, et al; Clinical and physiological assessments for elucidating falls risk in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009 Jul 15;24(9):1280-9.
  16. Ker K, Chinnock P; Interventions in the alcohol server setting for preventing injuries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD005244. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005244.pub3.
  17. Llado AC, Malheiro R, Estriga AR; Drop attacks: an unexpected diagnosis. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Mar 14;2014. pii: bcr-2013-202551. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-202551.
  18. Tricco AC, Thomas SM, Veroniki AA, et al; Comparisons of Interventions for Preventing Falls in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2017 Nov 7;318(17):1687-1699. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.15006.
  19. Cameron ID, Dyer SM, Panagoda CE, et al; Interventions for preventing falls in older people in care facilities and hospitals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Sep 7;9:CD005465. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005465.pub4.
  20. Sherrington C, Michaleff ZA, Fairhall N, et al; Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2017 Dec;51(24):1750-1758. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096547. Epub 2016 Oct 4.
  21. Robinson L, Newton JL, Jones D, et al; Self-management and adherence with exercise-based falls prevention programmes: a qualitative study to explore the views and experiences of older people and physiotherapists. Disabil Rehabil. 2013 May 28.
  22. Sherrington C, Tiedemann A; Physiotherapy in the prevention of falls in older people. J Physiother. 2015 Apr;61(2):54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jphys.2015.02.011. Epub 2015 Mar 18.

Article history

The information on this page is written and peer reviewed by qualified clinicians.

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