Repeated movements, such as going over bumps or around in a circle, send lots of messages to your brain. Your inner ear balance mechanisms feel different signals to those that your eyes are seeing which then sends your brain mixed, confusing messages. This then causes the symptom of motion sickness.
Motion sickness can also be triggered by anxiety or strong smells, such as food or petrol. Sometimes trying to read a book or a map can trigger motion sickness. Both in children and adults, playing computer games can sometimes induce motion sickness.
Motion sickness is more common in children and also in women. Fortunately, many children grow out of having motion sickness. It is not known why some people develop motion sickness more than others. Symptoms can develop in cars, trains, planes and boats and on fairground rides, etc. Symptoms typically go when the journey is over; however, not always. In some people they last a few hours, or even days, after the journey ends.
Symptoms of motion sickness
The symptoms of motion sickness are:
- Feeling sick (nausea).
- Drooling saliva
- Feeling cold and going pale
How to prevent motion sickness
Some general tips to avoid motion sickness include:
- Keep motion to a minimum. For example, sit in the front of a car, over the wing of a plane, on deck in the middle of a boat.
- Breathe fresh air if possible. For example, open a car window.
- Close your eyes and try to sleep.
- Do not read or watch a film.
- It is advisable not to stare at moving objects such as waves or other cars. Instead, look ahead, a little above the horizon, at a fixed place.
- Avoid heavy meals or alcohol before and during travelling. It may also be worth avoiding spicy or fatty food.
- On long journeys, it may be worth breaking the journey to have some fresh air, drink some cold water and if possible, take a short walk.
What is the treatment for motion sickness?
There are several medicines available which can reduce, or prevent, symptoms of motion sickness. You can buy them from pharmacies or get them on prescription. They work by interfering with the nerve signals described above. Although they are best taken before the journey, they may still help even if you take them after symptoms have begun.
Some medicines used for motion sickness may cause drowsiness. It is advisable not to drive or operate heavy machinery if you have taken them. In addition, some medicines may interfere with alcohol or other medication; your doctor or the pharmacist can advise you about this.
Motion sickness medicine
Hyoscine is the most effective medicine for motion sickness. It works by preventing the confusing nerve messages going to your brain. There are several brands of medicines which contain hyoscine and they come as a soluble form for children. You should take a dose 30-60 minutes before a journey and the effect can last up to 72 hours. One product (only available on prescription) comes as a patch for people aged 10 years or over. You stick this on to the skin behind the ear 5-6 hours before the journey and remove it at the end of the journey. This releases hyoscine into the bloodstream. Side-effects of hyoscine include dry mouth, drowsiness and blurred vision. However, side-effects are uncommon.
Antihistamines can also be useful, although they are not quite as effective as hyoscine. However, they usually cause fewer side-effects. There are several types of antihistamine. Some cause drowsiness - for example, promethazine, which may be of use for young children on long journeys. Older children or adults may prefer one that is less likely to cause drowsiness - for example, cinnarizine or cyclizine.
These can be useful and also used with medicines if required:
- One technique that has been shown to work in a clinical trial is to breathe deeply and slowly and, while focusing on your breathing, listen to music.
- Ginger can improve motion sickness in some people. It can be eaten in a biscuit or as crystallised ginger, drunk as tea or taken as tablets before a journey.
Further reading and references
Foreign Travel Advice by Country; GOV.UK
The World Factbook; Central Intelligence Agency
NHS Fit For Travel: Travel health information for people travelling abroad from the UK; Health Protection Scotland
information on carrying medication overseas; International Narcotics Control Board
Sleep disorders - shift work and jet lag; NICE CKS, Aug 2013 (UK access only)
Lackner JR; Motion sickness: more than nausea and vomiting. Exp Brain Res. 2014 Aug232(8):2493-510. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-4008-8. Epub 2014 Jun 25.
Wright T; Middle-ear pain and trauma during air travel. BMJ Clin Evid. 2015 Jan 192015. pii: 0501.
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