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This article is for Medical Professionals

Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find the Echocardiogram article more useful, or one of our other health articles.

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Echocardiography allows visualisation of cardiac structures, cardiac walls and the velocity of blood flow at certain points in the heart. The technique is an extension of ultrasound examination, using beams of sound at frequencies of 2.5-5 MHz, some of which is reflected at interfaces between tissues of different acoustic impedance.

There are three main echocardiogram techniques

  • Cross-sectional - is two-dimensional and gives the impression of a moving picture.
  • M-mode - uses a single static beam and appears as horizontal lines with superficial structures at the top and deep structures at the bottom.
  • Doppler - uses pulsed wave (useful for low-velocity flow - eg, mitral valve flow), continuous wave (useful for high-velocity flow - eg, aortic stenosis) and colour. Colour Doppler allows the velocity and direction of movement of blood within a heart to be shown and this can be demonstrated as a colour display. Movement towards the transducer is coded red and away from the transducer is coded blue, with turbulent flow shown as a mosaic pattern.

In practice, varying amounts of all three methods are usually used.

  • Valves.
  • Four chambers of the heart.
  • Wall thickness.
  • Amount of muscle contraction.
  • Pericardium.
  • Intracardiac masses.
  • Ascending aorta.

These include:

Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE)

  • TTE is performed with the patient lying on their left side with their left arm behind their head and the transducer placed in the intercostal spaces to the left of the sternum and in the anterior axillary line.
  • TTE is the preferred investigation in valvular heart disease because all four cardiac valves can be seen and tested by Doppler, and other abnormalities in ventricular performance can also be assessed.

Trans-oesophageal echocardiogram (TOE)

  • TOE is performed under sedation (usually with midazolam) and with facilities for resuscitation. Local anaesthetic spray is used for the upper pharynx and an ultrasound probe is passed into the oesophagus behind the heart to give high levels of resolution of cardiac structures.
  • It provides much better views of the posterior structures of the heart - eg, the left atrium, left atrial appendage and descending aorta. It is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (especially of prosthetic heart valves), management of a hypotensive patient in the intensive care unit (not responding to filling) and in the search for a potential cardiac source of thromboembolism.[3]
  • This procedure is invasive and requires patient consent.

Stress echocardiogram

  • Can be used during or soon after exercise but an intravenous infusion of dobutamine is often used to induce stress similar to exercise. This is a relatively safe and non-invasive method for the evaluation of patients with coronary heart disease.[4]
  • Rest and stress images are obtained and compared.
  • It has benefits over standard treadmill exercise testing for detecting myocardial ischaemia.
  • Appearance of reversible systolic regional wall motion abnormalities is typical of coronary artery disease.[5]
Some elements of echocardiogram results
Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)
  • Indicator of left ventricular systolic function.
  • 60% LVEF is taken as 'normal'.
  • 40-55% LVEF - though abnormal - may be clinically insignificant.
Concentric left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy
  • Thickened interventricular septum and posterior LV wall.
  • Occurs in hypertension and some cardiomyopathies (usually asymmetric hypertrophy).
Valvular stenosis or regurgitation
  • Some laboratories will report as mild, moderate or severe and/or quantify it using various mechanisms.
Chamber sizes
  • Usually given with normal ranges.
Differences in myocardial contraction
  • Hypokinesis indicates diminished contraction - eg, ischaemic muscle.
  • Akinesis indicates absence of contraction - eg, infarcted tissue.
  • Dyskinesis indicates the myocardial wall bulges outwards during systole - also seen in infarcted tissue.

Other points to note

  • Right ventricle - some laboratories will not comment on the right ventricle if it is normal or unless indicated.
  • Diastolic dysfunction - a possible cause of heart failure but not routinely looked for on echocardiogram (if suspect, specify it on the form).[7]
  • Strokes and transient ischaemic attacks - there may be a cardiac cause of emboli (eg, patent foramen ovale) and echocardiography may help to detect this (TOE being superior to TTE).[3]

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Further reading and references

  1. Tsang TS, Oh JK, Seward JB, et al; Diagnostic value of echocardiography in cardiac tamponade. Herz. 2000 Dec25(8):734-40.

  2. Sengupta PP, Khandheria BK; Transoesophageal echocardiography. Heart. 2005 Apr91(4):541-7.

  3. Tsutsui JM, Elhendy A, Xie F, et al; Safety of dobutamine stress real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Apr 1945(8):1235-42.

  4. Senior R, Monaghan M, Becher H, et al; Stress echocardiography for the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease: a critical appraisal. Supported by the British Society of Echocardiography. Heart. 2005 Apr91(4):427-36.

  5. McAlister NH, McAlister NK, Buttoo K; Understanding cardiac "echo" reports. Practical guide for referring physicians. Can Fam Physician. 2006 Jul52:869-74.

  6. Hillis GS, Bloomfield P; Basic transthoracic echocardiography. BMJ. 2005 Jun 18330(7505):1432-6.