Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find one of our health articles more useful.
Synonym: Lyell's syndrome, after Alan Lyell who first described four cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis in 1956 as 'an eruption resembling scalding of the skin.'
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute-onset, potentially life-threatening, idiosyncratic mucocutaneous reaction, usually occurring after commencement of a new medication.
Widespread full-thickness epidermal necrosis develops, producing erythema, and sloughing of the skin and mucosa, involving internal and external surfaces. The skin has an appearance similar to a scald. It usually affects the trunk, face and one or more mucous membranes.
It is considered by some as being part of a spectrum of disease which includes, in order of severity, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and TEN. However, this remains debatable. As erythema multiforme is associated with infections including herpes simplex virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, whereas SJS and TEN are necrolytic bullous reactions to certain drugs, it may be that erythema multiforme should not be classified as part of the same disease spectrum.Many accept that SJS and TEN are variants of the same condition.
Definitions vary and another classification system works on the fact that SJS and TEN are related conditions which can be differentiated by the degree of skin involvement. Less of the epidermis sloughs off in SJS, whereas TEN may be defined as involving >30% of the total body surface area.[4, 5]
There is thought to be an immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to the presence of toxic drug metabolites which accumulate in the skin. This reaction results in the destruction of keratinocytes. Specifically, cytotoxic T lymphocytes cause keratinocyte damage and subsequent necrosis, mediated by granzyme B. Cytotoxic molecules including FasL and granulysin have been implicated as causing the widespread keratinocyte apoptosis.
- Certain drugs: usually the reaction begins within a few days to two months after starting a new drug. There are many culpable medications. More than 200 have been associated with SJS/TEN.Those most commonly involved are:
- Anticonvulsants - phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and valproate.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially 'oxicam' derivatives such as piroxicam and meloxicam.
- The reaction is more rarely triggered by some immunisations and following bone marrow or organ transplantation. The skin manifestations of graft-versus-host disease are thought to have a similar aetiology to TEN.
- Infections such as mycoplasma and HIV are also associated and are known to trigger TEN without any drug exposure.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and malignancy are thought to increase the risk of TEN.
- In some cases there is no identifiable cause.
- Genetic factors seem to play a part in some cases, with study results varying geographically. For those of East Asian descent, in particular, it may be important to perform testing for HLA-B 1502 prior to starting treatment with carbamazepine.
- Worldwide incidence is 1-2 cases per million population per year.
- It can affect all age groups but is more common in elderly people, perhaps due to the increased numbers of drugs that they are prescribed.
- There is a prodromal phase usually lasting 2-3 days with fever, symptoms similar to upper respiratory tract infection, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, pruritus, malaise, arthralgia and myalgia.
- Mucous membrane involvement occurs early in 90% of cases and commonly precedes other symptoms.The conjunctivae, buccal, nasal, pharyngeal, tracheobronchial, perineal, vaginal, urethral and anal mucosae may all be involved.
- An ill-defined red 'burning/painful' macular or papular rash then develops, spreading from the face or the upper trunk. Bullae form and then coalesce. They generally increase in number over 3-4 days (sometimes hours). The epidermis can then slough in sheets.
- There may be hyperpyrexia.
- Hypotension and tachycardia can develop secondary to dehydration and hypovolaemia.
- Nikolsky's sign may be positive: if areas of seemingly normal skin between lesions are rubbed, the epidermis easily separates from its underlying surface.
- Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS).
- Burns (chemical, light or heat).
- Bullous impetigo.
- Pemphigus, pemphigoid (generally of slower onset).
- Epidermolysis bullosa hereditaria.
- Scarlet fever (desquamation but no bullae).
- Other drug eruptions.
- Erythema multiforme.
- Bullous lichen planus.
- Toxic shock syndrome (toxin-mediated reaction to staphylococcal infection - may be due to infected menstrual tampons).
- Erythroderma/exfoliative dermatitis.
- There are no confirmatory tests.
- Skin biopsy is used to distinguish from SSSS, and immunofluorescence staining is performed. There is full thickness epidermal necrosis in TEN plus epidermal detachment and sloughing.
- Percentage of body surface area affected distinguishes SJS from TEN.
- FBC, U&E, albumin, total protein and proteinuria must be closely monitored.
- Screening blood, urine and skin cultures should be collected.
- Management involves identifying the causative agent early where possible, and withdrawing it, along with supportive care. Early cessation of the causative drug is associated with better outcomes.
- Patients need transfer to a unit where they can receive intensive care, ideally a burns unit or HDU/ITU. Early admission to a burns or high dependency unit improves survival and reduces infection.
- A multidisciplinary approach to care is needed, including dermatologists, general physicians, surgeons, nurses and physiotherapists.
- Treatment is largely supportive. Fluid and electrolytes, infection and nutritional status all need very careful monitoring and treatment should be started as soon as possible.
- Debridement of necrotic areas of skin may be needed. The exposed dermis needs protecting with skin grafting to prevent fluid and protein loss and infection as well as to control pain.
- Dressings, emollients and saline may be applied to the affected skin. Use of 'anti-shear' therapy, which utilises a type of dressing that minimises the removal of delicate granulation tissue, may be helpful.
- No specific treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in a randomised controlled trial. Treatments which have been used, but for which benefit remains uncertain, include:[6, 7]
- Intravenous immunoglobulins.
- Systemic steroids.[12, 13]
- Ciclosporin A.
- Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists - eg, infliximab, etanercept.[15, 16]
- Antibiotics are generally not given prophylactically.
- Oral hygiene and ophthalmological treatment, including lubricants and topical antibiotics, may be needed.
- Anticoagulation treatment reduces the risk of thromboembolism.
- Topical steroids may be useful when used early in ocular disease.Early ophthalmological advice is essential to reduce the risk of ophthalmological sequelae.
- Small numbers involved in trials and the difficulty of enrolling critically ill patients mean that definitive evidence is hard to come by. Multicentre randomised controlled trials are needed to look at the treatments for TEN.
- Widespread skin sepsis and septicaemia.
- Pneumonia and respiratory failure.
- Dehydration (increased fluid loss, inability to drink if the mouth is involved).
- Hypovolaemic shock and multi-organ failure.
- Thromboembolism, including pulmonary embolism, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.
- Thermoregulatory disturbance.
- Ocular complications, which may lead to blindness. 50% of those surviving TEN are said to develop ocular complications such as:
- Dry eyes or watery eyes (the most common - 46% of cases).
- Corneal ulcers.
- Ectropion and entropion.
- Joint contractures.
- Loss of nails.
- Stomatitis and mucositis.
- Gastrointestinal haemorrhage.
- Oesophageal strictures and dysphagia.
- Gynaecological and obstetric complications - premature labour, long-term painful genitourinary lesions, vaginal stenosis, adenosis and telangiectasias.
- Hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation of skin; there may be scarring if infection has developed.
Mortality risk increases with the surface area involved, and is between 16-55%.It also depends on the quality of care and rapidity of diagnosis and treatment. A severity-of-illness score called the SCORTEN Scale is used, and has been demonstrated to have prognostic accuracy.A score of one is given to each of the following prognostic factors if they are present:
- Age >40.
- Heart rate >120 bpm.
- The presence of cancer or haematological malignancy.
- Involved body surface area >10%.
- Serum urea >10 mmol/L.
- Serum bicarbonate <20 mmol/L.
- Serum glucose >14 mmol/L.
A mortality risk can then be attributed to the scores achieved:
- Score 0-1: 3.2%
- Score of 2: 12.1%
- Score of 3: 35.3%
- Score of 4: 58.3%
- Score of ≥5: 90%
Patients who survive must be warned which drugs to avoid in the future, and the reaction documented and highlighted in their records.
Further reading and references
Schwartz RA, McDonough PH, Lee BW; Toxic epidermal necrolysis: Part I. Introduction, history, classification, clinical features, systemic manifestations, etiology, and immunopathogenesis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Aug69(2):173.e1-13
Tomasini C, Derlino F, Quaglino P, et al; From erythema multiforme to toxic epidermal necrolysis. Same spectrum or different diseases? G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2014 Apr149(2):243-61.
Abela C, Hartmann CE, De Leo A, et al; Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN): The Chelsea and Westminster Hospital wound management algorithm. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014 Aug67(8):1026-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2014.04.003. Epub 2014 May 9.
Freiman A, Borsuk D, Sasseville D; Dermatologic emergencies. CMAJ November 22, 2005 173 (11).
Harr T, French LE; Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2010 Dec 165:39.
Schwartz RA, McDonough PH, Lee BW; Toxic epidermal necrolysis: Part II. Prognosis, sequelae, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Aug69(2):187.e1-16
Hanken I, Schimmer M, Sander CA; Basic measures and systemic medical treatment of patients with toxic epidermal J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2009 Oct 21.
Borchers AT, Lee JL, Naguwa SM, et al; Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Autoimmun Rev. 2008 Sep7(8):598-605. Epub 2008 Jul 9.
Khalifian S, Ibrahim Z, Lilo MT, et al; Toxic epidermal necrolysis. Eplasty. 2014 Mar 1514:ic6. eCollection 2014.
Huang YC, Li YC, Chen TJ; The efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2012 Aug167(2):424-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2012.10965.x.
Kardaun SH, Jonkman MF; Dexamethasone pulse therapy for Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Acta Derm Venereol. 200787(2):144-8.
Yang Y, Xu J, Li F, et al; Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroid in the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a retrospective comparative study in China. Int J Dermatol. 2009 Oct48(10):1122-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.04166.x.
Valeyrie-Allanore L, Wolkenstein P, Brochard L, et al; Open trial of ciclosporin treatment for Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Oct163(4):847-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09863.x.
Meiss F, Helmbold P, Meykadeh N, et al; Overlap of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and toxic epidermal necrolysis: response to antitumour necrosis factor-alpha antibody infliximab: report of three cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 May21(5):717-9.
Paradisi A, Abeni D, Bergamo F, et al; Etanercept therapy for toxic epidermal necrolysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 Aug71(2):278-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2014.04.044. Epub 2014 Jun 11.
Sotozono C, Ueta M, Koizumi N, et al; Diagnosis and treatment of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal Ophthalmology. 2009 Apr116(4):685-90. Epub 2009 Feb 25.
Khalili B, Bahna SL; Pathogenesis and recent therapeutic trends in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006 Sep97(3):272-80
Niemeijer IC, van Praag MC, van Gemund N; Relevance and consequences of erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 Nov280(5):851-4. Epub 2009 Mar 11.
Sekula P, Liss Y, Davidovici B, et al; Evaluation of SCORTEN on a cohort of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis included in the RegiSCAR study. J Burn Care Res. 2011 Mar-Apr32(2):237-45. doi: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e31820aafbc.
I use my hot water bottle everyday in the winter as i get very cold (i do have the heating on and jumpers and im still cold) but ive noticed this red mark on my thighs from when ive been using my hot...jess73380
Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. Patient Platform Limited has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. For details see our conditions.