Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find one of our health articles more useful.
Treatment of almost all medical conditions has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. NICE has issued rapid update guidelines in relation to many of these. This guidance is changing frequently. Please visit https://www.nice.org.uk/covid-19 to see if there is temporary guidance issued by NICE in relation to the management of this condition, which may vary from the information given below.
Essential areas of cancer care include prevention (eg smoking cessation), early diagnosis including screening where appropriate (to provide the best chance of curative treatment), breaking bad news in a sympathetic, supportive and motivational manner, maintaining empathy and support, and the optimum management of the specific cancer.
Primary care cancer management
Patients may be seen periodically by oncologists and/or other relevant specialists. However patients need a great deal of support from primary cancer care, which may include:
- Providing realistic information - which may be very positive in view of many cancers being curable if diagnosed in the early stages.
- Providing empathy and support to patients and their carers in coping with chronic illness.
- It is essential to address all concerns and fears. Many patients will have a preconceived fearful outlook when diagnosed as having any cancer.
- Provision of advice or access to advice regarding any medical issues not covered or forgotten while being seen in secondary care.
- Management of associated psychological difficulties, including anxiety and depression.
- Evaluation and treatment of symptoms in the context of possible association with the cancer or an unrelated presentation.
- Evaluation and management of side-effects resulting from medication or other treatment.
- Provision of financial information, including exemption from prescription charges and relevant benefits.
Terminal cancer care
See also the article on Palliative Care.
The process of caring for people with cancer in the last year of life includes:
- Identifying requirements for palliative care and supportive care.
- Assessment of the patient's needs, symptoms, preferences and any issues important to them.
- Planning care around the patient's needs and preferences and enabling these to be fulfilled, including supporting patients to live and die where they choose. Improved advance care planning and information leads to less fear, fewer crises and fewer admissions to hospital.
All aspects of the person's needs should be considered and addressed. As well as health, psychological and social issues, this will also include issues of nutrition, consent to treatment, any advance directive and any applicable benefits for the terminally ill patient. Essential principles in the delivery of end of life care include:
- Choices and priorities of the individual are at the centre of planning and delivery.
- Effective, straightforward, sensitive and open communication between individuals, families, friends and workers underpins all planning and activity. Communication reflects an understanding of the significance of each individual's beliefs and needs.
- Delivery through close multidisciplinary and interagency working. Close communication and co-ordination improves confidence and effectiveness of care. Continuity of care must include out-of-hours provision.
- Individuals, families and friends are well informed about the range of options and resources available to them to be involved with care planning.
- Care is delivered in a sensitive, person-centred way, taking account of circumstances, wishes and priorities of the individual, family and friends.
- Care and support are available to anyone affected by the end of life and death of an individual. Carers must be fully supported, informed, enabled and empowered.
- Control of symptoms: see separate articles on Pain Control in Terminal Care, Nausea and Vomiting in Palliative Care, Dyspnoea in Palliative Care, Controlled Drugs and Syringe Drivers.
- Health and social care professionals must be fully supported to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Regular audit should be considered for any aspect of palliative care - eg, frequency of review, identification of main carer, multidisciplinary discussion, referral and medication issues.