Breast Problems

Authored by , Reviewed by Dr Hannah Gronow | Last edited | Meets Patient’s editorial guidelines

Breast problems are very common in women of all ages. Most breast problems are not caused by breast cancer but it is really important to get any breast problems or concerns checked by a doctor. You may need to be referred to a breast specialist and you may need some tests such as a mammogram and ultrasound scan to find out the cause.

There are may different breast problems, including:

What to expect during a breast screening

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Nipple discharge is usually caused by benign disease (ie not breast cancer). Normal nipple discharge occurs during pregnancy and breastfeeding and may continue until up to one year after childbirth or the end of breastfeeding. Excessive breast stimulation can also cause nipple discharge.

Nipple discharge can be caused by certain gland (endocrine) problems such as a prolactinoma or if you're taking certain medicines (the combined oral contraceptive pill, cimetidine, antidepressants or metoclopramide).

Nipple discharge caused by an underlying breast problem (for example, breast cancer) is more likely to affect only one breast, the discharge may be bloodstained and there may also be an abnormal lump in the same breast.

An inverted nipple points into the breast instead of the normal shape of pointing outwards. Inverted nipples are often harmless with no serious underlying cause. Many women are born with nipples that naturally invert at times and then point outwards at other times. Sometimes the nipple may become inverted after breastfeeding.

If one or both nipples start to invert then it is very important to get it checked out but most cases are not due to anything serious.

The possible causes of inverted nipples include:

  • Injury to the breast, or breast surgery.
  • Breast cancer.
  • Breast infections - for example, mastitis.
  • Rapid and substantial loss of weight.

Skin problems can develop on or near the breast. There may be itching, scaling, dimpling, swelling, redness or other changes in skin colour. There is often no serious underlying breast problem but these skin changes may be caused by breast cancer so it's really important to get checked out straightaway in case there is a serious problem.

Breast Lumps

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Further reading and references

  • Salzman B, Fleegle S, Tully AS; Common breast problems. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Aug 1586(4):343-9.

  • Goyal A; Breast pain. Clin Evid (Online). 2011 Jan 172011. pii: 0812.

  • Spencer JP; Management of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Sep 1578(6):727-31.

  • Cheung KL, Lam TP; Approach to a lump in the breast: a regional perspective. Asian J Surg. 2005 Jan28(1):65-70.

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I noticed on my wife's back that there is a lump with darkish shade to it, she told me she's had it since she was young, does anyone have any idea what it could be Thank you