Does having high blood pressure give you any symptoms?
Very rarely. Usually it's only picked up if blood pressure is checked routinely, or as part of checks for another medical problem. Occasionally if it is very high, you can get headaches. Even more occasionally, some people feel a bit dizzy, or their vision can be affected.
Other than the blood pressure reading being high, there isn't usually anything for the doctor to find on examination either. If blood pressure has been high for some time, or very high, there can be changes in the blood vessels at the back of the eye.
If there are no high blood pressure symptoms, why is it a problem?
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a risk factor for developing serious health problems sometime in the future. If you have high blood pressure, over the years it may do some damage to your blood vessels (arteries) and put a strain on your heart. In general, the higher your blood pressure, the greater the health risk.
Cardiovascular disease is the biggest risk from having high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are diseases of the heart (cardiac muscle) or blood vessels (vasculature). This usually means diseases of the heart or blood vessels that are caused by atheroma. Patches of atheroma are like small fatty lumps that develop within the inside lining of blood vessels (arteries). Atheroma is also known as atherosclerosis and hardening of the arteries.
Cardiovascular diseases that can be caused by atheroma include:
High blood pressure is just one of several possible risk factors for developing a cardiovascular disease. Others include smoking, having high cholesterol and being overweight.
Reducing high blood pressure means you are less likely to have a stroke or a heart attack and more likely to live longer.
Other health conditions which you would be more prone to if high blood pressure is not treated include:
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Further reading & references
- Hypertension: management of hypertension in adults in primary care; NICE Clinical Guideline (August 2011)
- Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension; ESH/ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines, European Society of Cardiology (2013)
- He FJ, Li J, Macgregor GA; Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2013 Apr 3 346:f1325. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f1325.
- Description of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Eating Plan; National Institutes of Health
- Lipid modification - cardiovascular risk assessment and the modification of blood lipids for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease; NICE Clinical Guideline (July 2014)
- Ettehad D, Emdin CA, Kiran A, et al; Blood pressure lowering for prevention of cardiovascular disease and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2016 Mar 5 387(10022):957-67. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01225-8. Epub 2015 Dec 24.
- Alcohol Guidelines Review – Report from the Guidelines development group to the UK Chief Medical Officers; Department of Health, January 2016
- 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice; European Society of Cardiology (2016)
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