A meniscal tear is defined as a tear of the meniscus inside the knee joint. There are other types of knee cartilage that can also be injured.
You've all seen the footballer on the telly - one moment he's running full pelt, the next he's tripped over another player and is clutching his knee in agony. There's a good chance an injury to his knee cartilage is at least part of the problem. There are two types of cartilage injuries that you can get in your knee:
- Meniscal tears
- Articular cartilage injuries
How do you get meniscal tears and other knee cartilage injuries
Meniscal tears are usually caused by landing suddenly on your knee at the same time as twisting it. They are common in:
Having said all that, you can also get a torn meniscus that just develops gradually as you get older - these are called degenerative tears.
Articular cartilage injuries can also be caused by a sports injury but don't happen on their own as often. More often you get an articular cartilage injury when you have had a particularly bad injury to the knee and damaged other parts of the knee too.
Read more about who gets meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries and what causes them.
What are the symptoms?
The common symptoms of a meniscal tear are:
These symptoms usually come on soon after an injury but will come on more gradually if the tear is one that has developed as a result of getting older (a degenerative tear). Articular cartilage damage causes similar symptoms but articular cartilage is more often injured alongside other knee injuries, so it may be those other injuries that cause most of your symptoms.
Find out more about the symptoms of knee cartilage injuries.
When should I see a doctor?
It's hard to say exactly when you should see a doctor as it depends largely on how bad your knee is and how it is affecting you. Certainly if you have had a painful, swollen, stiff knee for more than a month or so, it would be worth getting medical advice.
If you have injured your knee and it has swelled up immediately, especially if you can't put weight on it, you should get urgent medical advice as you may have a fracture or torn a ligament. For further details see separate leaflet called Knee Ligament Injuries.
Get more advice on when to see a doctor.
How is a meniscal tear or articular cartilage injury diagnosed?
It is usually possible for a doctor to diagnose your injury once they have heard how you injured your knee and have had a chance to examine your knee. Sometimes they will arrange for you to have an MRI scan, particularly if it has been going on long enough for them to think that it won't get better with time and physiotherapy and that you might need an operation. X-rays aren't helpful in diagnosing meniscal and cartilage injuries.
Find out more about the tests used.
What is the treatment for a meniscal tear or an articular cartilage injury?
For the first couple of days or so, you need to take it easy so you don't injure your knee any further - putting your leg up and using ice and a compression bandage and taking painkillers if you need to.
Read more about self-care.
After the initial really bad pain has begun to ease, it's important to get your knee moving. An appointment with a physiotherapist or a sports therapist at this stage can be very helpful.
Find out more about physiotherapy.
Further treatment will then depend on how your injured knee is affecting you. If it is stopping you from being able to work, for example, you may need to see an orthopaedic surgeon and consider an operation.
Discover more about what's involved in the various types of operation.
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Further reading & references
- Englund M, Guermazi A, Gale D, et al; Incidental meniscal findings on knee MRI in middle-aged and elderly persons. N Engl J Med. 2008 Sep 11 359(11):1108-15.
- McDermott ID, Amis AA; The consequences of meniscectomy. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006 Dec 88(12):1549-56.
- Sihvonen R, Paavola M, Malmivaara A, et al; Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy versus sham surgery for a degenerative meniscal tear. N Engl J Med. 2013 Dec 26 369(26):2515-24. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1305189.
- Knee pain - assessment; NICE CKS, March 2011 (UK access only)
- Bark S, Piontek T, Behrens P, et al; Enhanced microfracture techniques in cartilage knee surgery: Fact or fiction? World J Orthop. 2014 Sep 18 5(4):444-9. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v5.i4.444. eCollection 2014 Sep 18.
- van den Bekerom MP, Struijs PA, Blankevoort L, et al; What is the evidence for rest, ice, compression, and elevation therapy in the treatment of ankle sprains in adults? J Athl Train. 2012 Jul-Aug 47(4):435-43. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-47.4.14.
- Holzer LA, Leithner A, Holzer G; Surgery versus physical therapy for meniscal tear and osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 15 369(7):677. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1307177#SA1.
Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. Patient Platform Limited has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. For details see our conditions.