So, you’ve had your cholesterol checked, but what do those numbers really mean? And what do you need to do now? We take a look at the facts and figures.
Why do I need a cholesterol test?
You will get a free NHS cholesterol test if you have a number of risk factors for high cholesterol including if you’re over 40, have coronary heart disease or diabetes, have had a stroke or mini stroke, or have a family history of cardiovascular disease or a cholesterol-related condition.
What do the numbers mean?
Cholesterol levels are measured in millimoles per litre (mmol/L) in the UK. The government recommends the general population aims for under 5 mmol/L of total cholesterol (TC) levels, but three out of five adults in the UK have levels of 5 mmol/L or above.
Your GP will explain your cholesterol readings and what they mean in terms of your future health - mainly whether you have a high, moderate or low risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) within the next 10 years.
After the test, you may just be given the TC figure, but ask your surgery for your full results and keep a note of them to compare against future checks.
Here’s a quick guide to understanding your cholesterol levels.
Total cholesterol (TC)
The total amount of cholesterol in your blood
What’s healthy? Government advice has moved away from giving absolute figures, but ideally your cholesterol should be be 5 mmol/L or less, or 4 mmol/L if you’re at high risk of CVD, or you have high blood pressure, diabetes or have had a cardiovascular event.
What should I do? If your TC level is too high, you can help bring it down by making some simple diet and lifestyle changes, such as:
- Being more active.
- Cutting down on foods rich in saturated fats, such as butter, lard and full-fat dairy.
- Swapping fatty meats for lean meats, such as chicken.
- Eating more foods with healthy fats, such as olive oil, nuts, seeds and oily fish.
- Having meat-free days - try Quorn® or soya products instead.
- Eating more fruits, vegetables and wholegrains, especially oats and barley.
Including more foods fortified with plant sterols or stanols in your diet.
Your doctor or nurse will tell you when you need to be tested again.
HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)
The 'good' cholesterol
What’s healthy? This should ideally be over 1.2 mmol/L for women and 1 mmol/L for men. In general, the higher your level of HDL, the more you're protected against heart disease.
What should I do? If your HDL-C levels are healthy, and your risk of CVD is low, you should have your cholesterol tested every five years. To maintain healthy HDL-C levels, make sure you:
- Stay active.
- Don’t smoke or, if you do smoke, stop.
- Try to lose any excess abdominal fat.
- Follow a healthy diet (see the tips above).
Ask your GP for any more advice.
It’s sometimes possible to get a false reading, so if there’s anything unusual about your test results, speak to your GP and ask for the test to be repeated. If your HDL-C level is high, this can also make your TC level look high, so make sure your doctor tests your TC, HDL-C and LDL-C levels.
LDL cholesterol (LDL-C)
The 'bad' cholesterol
What’s healthy? It should ideally be 3 mmol/L or less, or 2mmo/L if you’re high risk.
What should I do? If your LDL-C reading is outside healthy levels, speak to your GP - if it's above 4.9 mmol/L you could have familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a form of inherited high cholesterol that needs treatment and lifestyle changes. Others in your family may have the same condition, so it’s important to get a proper diagnosis so everyone can get the right treatment. If your LDL-C level is high for other reasons, changing your diet and exercise regime can help get your bad cholesterol back on track. Your GP may also prescribe statins, a group of medicines that help lower LDL-C in the blood, particularly if you have FH or other risk factors such as your age, diabetes, smoking or high blood pressure.
Non-HDL cholesterol - this is your total cholesterol reading, minus your HDL-C level reading. So, all the bad cholesterols added together, including your LDL cholesterol.
What’s healthy? It should ideally be 4 mmol/L or less.
What should I do? This reading has been shown to help calculate your risk of CVD more accurately than before. So if yours is high, you have a higher risk of developing CVD. Your doctor may prescribe a statin but will recommend you follow healthy lifestyle advice (see above) too, along with losing weight and quitting smoking if needed. Exercise can be very helpful; in 2014, a review found exercise could help raise HDL-C levels, particularly resistance training, offsetting any rise in non-HDL cholesterol.
Your total cholesterol figure divided by the HDL-C figure
What’s healthy? The lower this figure, the better. Ideally 4.5, while above 6 is considered high risk.
What should I do? This reading will help your GP work out whether your overall cholesterol levels are healthy, which in turn helps them calculate your risk of CVD - another reason why it’s important to have full cholesterol results, not just TC. It could be high if your TC, LDL-C and non-HDL cholesterol levels are too high, or if your HDL-C is too low, or a combination of both. Maintaining a healthy TC:HDL ratio long-term can help reduce your risk of CVD in future. You can do this by following the advice above.
Another type of fat found in the blood, mainly from the food we eat
What’s healthy? Less than 1.7 mmol/L ideally on a fasting sample, or less than 2.3 mmol/L on a non-fasting sample.
What should I do? Very high triglyceride levels can cause a painful condition called pancreatitis. People can have raised levels for many reasons, but the most common reasons are lifestyle-related:
- Being apple-shaped (carrying excess weight around your midriff).
- Developing or having type 2 diabetes.
Excessive alcohol consumption.
You can keep your triglyceride levels low by losing weight, being more active and eating sensibly, especially by cutting back on alcohol, sugary foods and saturated fats, and eating more fruits, vegetables, pulses and wholegrains.
What happens now?
There’s no specific cholesterol level at which you will or won’t have a heart attack, but they do help form part of a bigger picture. Your GP uses these numbers alongside other risk factors, such as your family history, weight, age, sex and ethnicity, plus whether you smoke or have high blood pressure, to calculate your risk of CVD.
Once your risk has been worked out, your doctor will suggest a number of options to help you maintain healthy cholesterol levels and reduce your risk of developing CVD. But whatever your cholesterol reading, it’s always worth following a healthy lifestyle to help keep your cholesterol in check.