Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is also often called trochanteric bursitis. The main symptom is pain over the outside of your upper thigh. Most cases are due to minor injury or inflammation to tissues in your upper, outer thigh area. Commonly the condition goes away on its own over time. Anti-inflammatory painkillers, physiotherapy and steroid injections can all sometimes help.
What is greater trochanteric pain syndrome?
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a condition that causes pain over the outside of your upper thigh (or thighs). The cause is usually due to inflammation or injury to some of the tissues that lie over the bony prominence (the greater trochanter) at the top of the thigh bone (femur). Tissues that lie over the greater trochanter include muscles, tendons, strong fibrous tissue (fascia), and bursae.
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome used to be called trochanteric bursitis. This was because the pain was thought to be coming from an inflamed bursa that lies over the greater trochanter. A bursa is a small sac filled with fluid which helps to allow smooth movement between two uneven surfaces. There are various bursae in the body and they can become inflamed due to various reasons.
However, research suggests that most cases of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are due to minor tears or damage to the nearby muscles, tendons or fascia, so that an inflamed bursa is an uncommon cause. So, rather than the term trochanteric bursitis, the more general term, greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is now preferred.
How common is greater trochanteric pain syndrome?
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome affects about 1 in 300 people each year. It is more common in women between 40-60 years of age. However, it can occur in younger people, especially runners, footballers and dancers.
What causes greater trochanteric pain syndrome?
Causes of greater trochanteric pain syndrome include:
- An injury such as a fall on to the side of your hip area.
- Repetitive movements involving your hip area, such as excessive running or walking.
- Prolonged or excessive pressure to your hip area (for example, sitting in bucket car seats may aggravate the problem).
- Some infections (for example, tuberculosis) and some diseases (for example, gout and arthritis) can be associated with an inflamed fluid-filled sac (bursa).
- The presence of surgical wire, implants or scar tissue in the hip area (for example, after hip surgery).
- Having a difference in your leg length.
What are the symptoms of greater trochanteric pain syndrome?
The most common symptom is pain in your outer thigh and hip area. Many people find this pain to be a deep pain which may be aching or burning. The pain may become worse over time.
The pain may be more intense when you are lying on your side, especially at night. The pain may also be made worse by doing exercise. You may find that you walk with a limp.
How is greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosed?
The diagnosis is usually made based on your symptoms and an examination by a doctor. Your doctor will usually examine your hip and legs. You may find it be to be very tender when your doctor presses over the trochanter area. Tests (investigations) are not normally needed. However, tests might be necessary if your doctor suspects that infection of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) is the cause (rare). Tests may also be necessary if the diagnosis is not clear. For example, an X-ray of your hip or an MRI scan may be advised if the diagnosis is unclear.
What is the treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome?
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is usually self-limiting. That is, it usually goes away on its own in time. However, it commonly takes several weeks for the pain to ease. Symptoms can persist for months and sometimes for longer in a small proportion of cases. However, persistence does not mean that there is a serious underlying condition or that the hip joint is being damaged.
Decreasing activity such as running or excessive walking for a while may help to speed recovery. In addition, the following may be useful:
- Early on, applying an ice pack (wrapped in a towel) for 10-20 minutes several times a day may improve your symptoms.
- Taking paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen may help to reduce the pain.
- Losing weight. If you are overweight or obese then losing some weight is likely to improve your symptoms.
- Physiotherapy is often used and is often very effective.
- Injection of steroid and local anaesthetic. If the above measures do not help then an injection into the painful area may be beneficial.
- If the condition is severe or persistent then you may be referred to a specialist for advice regarding further treatment.
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Further reading & references
- Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (trochanteric bursitis); NICE CKS, August 2016 (UK access only)
- Williams BS, Cohen SP; Greater trochanteric pain syndrome: a review of anatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Anesth Analg. 2009 May 108(5):1662-70.
- Strauss EJ, Nho SJ, Kelly BT; Greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2010 Jun 18(2):113-9.
- McMahon SE, Smith TO, Hing CB; A systematic review of imaging modalities in the diagnosis of greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Musculoskeletal Care. 2012 Dec 10(4):232-9. doi: 10.1002/msc.1024. Epub 2012 Jul 4.
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